Skip to main content

Cross-Temporal Meta-Analysis: A Conceptual and Empirical Critique


The proper estimation of age, period, and cohort (APC) effects is a pervasive concern for the study of a variety of psychological and social phenomena, inside and outside of organizations. One analytic technique that has been used to estimate APC effects is cross-temporal meta-analysis (CTMA). Although CTMA has some appealing qualities (e.g., ease of interpretability), it has also been criticized on theoretical and methodological grounds. Furthermore, CTMA makes strong assumptions about the nature and operation of cohort effects relative to age and period effects that have not been empirically tested. Accordingly, the goal of this paper is to explore CTMA, its history, and these assumptions. Using a Monte Carlo study, we demonstrate that, in many cases, cohort effects are misestimated (i.e., systematically over- or underestimated) by CTMA. This work provides further evidence that APC effects pose intractable problems for research questions where APC effects are of interest.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 3.


  1. In Twenge’s (2000) paper, Twenge and Campbell (2000) is cited as an unpublished manuscript. Twenge and Campbell (2000) was later published in 2001 and hence appears as such in the “References” section. This explains the incongruity of citing a later paper (2001) that appeared in an earlier one (2000).


Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Cort W. Rudolph.

Additional information

Publisher’s Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

A pre-print version of this work can be found here: Code to replicate the simulations presented here can be found at: A Shiny web-app is also available here:

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Rudolph, C.W., Costanza, D.P., Wright, C. et al. Cross-Temporal Meta-Analysis: A Conceptual and Empirical Critique. J Bus Psychol 35, 733–750 (2020).

Download citation

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:


  • Age
  • Cohorts
  • Cross-temporal meta-analysis
  • Generations
  • Lifespan