Advertisement

Journal of Business and Psychology

, Volume 33, Issue 5, pp 661–673 | Cite as

Corporate social responsibility and work engagement: testing a moderated mediation model

  • Yongqiang GaoEmail author
  • Dan Zhang
  • Yuanyuan Huo
Original Paper

Abstract

The purpose of this study is to examine the mediating role of collective self-esteem in the relationship between employees’ perceived corporate social responsibility (CSR) and their work engagement. We also explore the moderating role of employees’ concern for face in the linkage between their perceived CSR and collective self-esteem. A two-wave panel data from a final sample of 217 employees in six companies in Wuhan, China, completed the questionnaire survey. Employees’ perceived CSR has a direct and positive effect on their work engagement, which is partially mediated by their collective self-esteem. Furthermore, employees’ concern for face moderates the relationship between their perceived CSR and collective self-esteem. CSR has a stronger effect on collective self-esteem for employees who concern more for face than for those who concern less for face. Understanding the outcomes, the mediating mechanisms, as well as the boundary conditions of perceived CSR on work engagement, help firms to better formulate their CSR strategy. First, we introduce collective self-esteem as an important mediating mechanism in the relationship between CSR and employees’ work engagement. Second, we identify concern for face as an important limiting condition in the linkage between CSR and employees’ collective self-esteem. Finally, previous research investigating employees’ reactions to CSR has predominantly been conducted in the West. We conduct our study in the Chinese or Confucian context to provide some new and complementary insights.

Keywords

Perceived corporate social responsibility Work engagement Collective self-esteem Concern for face 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors are grateful to the financial support of the ‘National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC)’ (No. 71372131).

References

  1. Abdullah, M. H., & Rashid, N. R. N. A. (2012). The implementation of corporate social responsibility (CSR) programs and its impact on employee organizational citizenship behavior. International Journal of Business and Commerce, 2(1), 67–75.Google Scholar
  2. Acemoglu, D., & Robinson, J. (2012). Why nations fail: The origins of power, prosperity, and poverty. New York: Crown Business.Google Scholar
  3. Adler, N. E., & Snibbe, A. C. (2003). The role of psychosocial processes in explaining the gradient between socioeconomic status and health. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 12(4), 119–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Aguilera, R., Rupp, D. E., Ganapathi, J., & Williams, C. A. (2006). Justice and social responsibility: A social exchange model. Berlin: Paper presented at the Society for Industrial/Organizational Psychology Annual Meeting.Google Scholar
  5. Aguilera, R. V., Rupp, D., Williams, C. A., & Ganapathi, J. (2007). Putting the S back in corporate social responsibility: A multi-level theory of social change in organizations. Academy of Management Review, 32, 836–863.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Aguinis, H., & Glavas, A. (2012). What we know and don’t know about corporate social responsibility: A review and research agenda. Journal of Management, 38, 932–968.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Aiken, L. S., & West, S. G. (1991). Multiple regression: Testing and interpreting interactions. Newbury Park: Sage.Google Scholar
  8. Akremi, A. E., Gond, J. P., Swaen, V., De Roeck, K., & Igalens, J. (2016). How do employees perceive corporate responsibility? Development and validation of a multidimensional corporate stakeholder responsibility scale. Journal of Management, 35(7), 1141–1168.Google Scholar
  9. Albrecht, S. L. (Ed.). (2010). Handbook of employee engagement: Perspectives, issues, research and practice. Glos: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  10. Ali, I., Rehman, K. U., Ali, S. I., Yousaf, J., & Zia, M. (2010). Corporate social responsibility influences employees commitment and organizational performance. African Journal of Business Management, 4(12), 2796–2801.Google Scholar
  11. Bakker, A. B. (2011). An evidence-based model of work engagement. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 20(4), 265–269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bakker, A. B., Demerouti, E., & Verbeke, W. (2004). Using the job demands-resources model to predict burnout and performance. Human Resource Management, 43(1), 83–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Balducci, C., Fraccaroli, F., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2010). Psychometric properties of the Italian version of the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES-9). European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 26(2), 143–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bao, Y., Zhou, K. Z., & Su, C. (2003). Face consciousness and risk aversion: Do they affect consumer decision-making? Psychology & Marketing, 20(8), 733–755.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Barnett, M. L., & Salomon, R. M. (2006). Beyond dichotomy: The curvilinear relationship between social responsibility and financial performance. Strategic Management Journal, 27, 1101–1122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bartel, C. A. (2001). Social comparisons in boundary-spanning work: Effects of community outreach on members’ organizational identity and identification. Administrative Science Quarterly, 46(3), 379–414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bondy, K., & Starkey, K. (2014). The dilemmas of internationalization: Corporate social responsibility in the multinational corporation. British Journal of Management, 25, 4–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Brammer, S., Millington, A., & Pavelin, S. (2006). Is philanthropy strategic? An analysis of the management of charitable giving in large UK companies. Business Ethics: A European Review, 15(3), 234–245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Brammer, S., Millington, A., & Rayton, B. (2007). The contribution of corporate social responsibility to organizational commitment. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 18(10), 1701–1719.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Brislin, R. W. (1980). Translation and content analysis of oral and written material. Handbook of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 2(2), 349–444.Google Scholar
  21. Brown, P., & Levinson, S. C. (1987). Politeness: Some universals in language usage. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Brown, T. J., & Dacin, P. A. (1997). The company and the product: Corporate association and consumer product responses. Journal of Marketing, 61, 68–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Caligiuri, P., Mencin, A., & Jiang, K. (2013). Win-win-win: The influence of company-sponsored volunteerism programs on employees, NGOs, and business units. Personnel Psychology, 66, 825–860.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Carroll, A. (1999). Corporate social responsibility: Evolution of a definitional construct. Business and Society, 38(3), 268–295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Carroll, A. B. (1979). A three-dimensional conceptual model of corporate performance. Academy of Management Review, 4(4), 497–505.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Chan, H., Wan, L. C., & Sin, L. Y. M. (2009). The contrasting effects of culture on consumer tolerance: Interpersonal face and impersonal fate. Journal of Consumer Research, 36, 292–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Cocroft, B. K., & Ting-Toomey, S. (1994). Facework in Japan and the United States. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 18(4), 469–506.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Davis, K. (1973). The case for and against business assumptions of social responsibilities. Academy of Management Journal, 16, 312–322.Google Scholar
  29. Decker, O. S. (2004). Corporate social responsibility and structural change in financial services. Managerial Auditing Journal, 19(6), 712–728.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Dutton, J. E., & Dukerich, J. M. (1991). Keeping an eye on the mirror: Image and identity in organizational adaptation. Academy of Management Journal, 34(3), 517–554.Google Scholar
  31. Edwards, J. R., & Lambert, L. S. (2007). Methods for integrating moderation and mediation: A general analytical framework using moderated path analysis. Psychological Methods, 12(1), 1–22.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Eells, R., & Walton, C. (1974). Conceptual Foundations of Business (3rd ed.). Burr Ridge: Irwin.Google Scholar
  33. Esmaeelinezhad, O., Boerhannoeddin, A. B., & Singaravelloo, K. (2015). The effects of corporate social responsibility dimensions on employee engagement in Iran. International Journal of Academic Research in Business & Social Sciences, 5(3), 15–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Fombrun, C. (1996). Reputation: Realizing value for the corporate image. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.Google Scholar
  35. Fombrun, C., & Shanley, M. (1990). What’s in a name? Reputation building and corporate strategy. Academy of Management Journal, 33(2), 233–258.Google Scholar
  36. Freeman, R. E. (1984). Strategic management: A stakeholder approach. Boston: Pitman.Google Scholar
  37. Gallup Consulting. 2013. State of the Global Workplace: Employee Engagement Insights for Business Leaders Worldwide. Washington, DC: Gallup.Google Scholar
  38. Gao, J. H. (2014). Relating corporate social responsibility to employee engagement. International Journal of Asian Business & Information Management, 5(2), 12–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Gardberg, N. A., & Fombrun, C. J. (2006). Corporate citizenship: Creating intangible assets across institutional environments. Academy of Management Review, 34, 329–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Glavas, A. (2012). Employee engagement and sustainability: A model for implementing meaningfulness at and in work. Journal of Corporate Citizenship, 46, 13–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Glavas, A. (2016). Corporate social responsibility and employee engagement: Enabling employees to employ more of their whole selves at work. Frontiers in Psychology, 7, 1–10.Google Scholar
  42. Glavas, A., & Kelley, K. (2014). The effects of perceived corporate social responsibility on employee attitudes. Business Ethics Quarterly, 24, 165–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Godfrey, P. C. (2005). The relationship between corporate philanthropy and shareholder wealth: A risk management perspective. Academy of Management Review, 30, 777–798.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Goffman, E. (1967). Interaction ritual: Essays on face-to-face interaction. New York: Pantheon Books.Google Scholar
  45. Goodman, E., Adler, N. E., Kawachi, I., Frazier, A. L., Huang, B., & Colditz, G. A. (2001). Adolescents’ perceptions of social status: Development and evaluation of a new indicator. Pediatrics, 108(2), e31.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Griffin, J. J., & Mahon, J. F. (1997). The corporate social performance and corporate financial performance debate: Twenty-five years of incomparable research. Business and Society, 36(1), 5–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hayes, A. F. (2013). Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis. New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  48. Hobfoll, S. E., Johnson, R. J., Ennis, N., & Jackson, A. P. (2003). Resource loss, resource gain, and emotional outcomes among inner city women. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84(3), 632–643.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Hogg, M., & Turner, J. (1987). Intergroup behaviour, selfstereotyping and the salience of social categories. British Journal of Social Psychology, 26, 325–340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Hogg, M. A., & Abrams, D. (1988). Social identifications: A social psychology of intergroup relations and group processes. Abingdon: Taylor & Frances/Routledge.Google Scholar
  51. Husted, B. W. (2000). The impact of national culture on software piracy. Journal of Business Ethics, 26(3), 197–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Hwang, A., Francesco, A. M., & Kessler, E. (2003). The relationship between individualism-collectivism, face, and feedback and learning processes in Hong Kong, Singapore, and the United States. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 34(1), 72–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Hwang, K. (2006). Moral face and social face: Contingent self-esteem in Confucian society. International Journal of Psychology, 41(4), 276–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Jones, D. A. (2010). Does serving the community also serve the company? Using organizational identification and social exchange theories to understand employee responses to a volunteerism programme. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 83, 857–878.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Jones, D. A., Willness, C. R., & Madey, S. (2014). Why are job seekers attracted by corporate social performance? Experimental and field tests of three signal-based mechanisms. Academy of Management Journal, 57, 383–404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Kahn, W. A. (1990). Psychological conditions of personal engagement and disengagement at work. Academy of Management Journal, 33(4), 692–724.Google Scholar
  57. Kim, H. R., Lee, M., Lee, H. T., & Kim, N. M. (2010). Corporate social responsibility and employee–company identification. Journal of Business Ethics, 95(4), 557–569.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Lin, C. P. (2010). Modeling corporate citizenship, organizational trust, and work engagement based on attachment theory. Journal of Business Ethics, 94(4), 517–531.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Lin, C. P., Lyau, N. M., Tsai, Y. H., Chen, W. Y., & Chiu, C. K. (2010). Modeling corporate citizenship and its relationship with organizational citizenship behaviors. Journal of Business Ethics, 95(3), 357–372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Little, T. D., Cunningham, W. A., Shahar, G., & Widaman, K. F. (2002). To parcel or not to parcel: Exploring the question, weighing the merits. Structural Equation Modeling, 9, 151–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Little, T. D., Rhemtulla, M., Gibson, K., & Schoemann, A. M. (2013). Why the items versus parcels controversy needn’t be one. Psychological Methods, 18(3), 285–300.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  62. Luhtanen, R., & Crocker, J. (1991). Self-esteem and intergroup comparisons: Toward a theory of collective self-esteem. In J. Suls & T. A. Wills (Eds.), Social comparison: Contemporary theory and research (pp. 211–234). Hillsdale: Erlbaurn.Google Scholar
  63. Luhtanen, R., & Crocker, J. (1992). A collective self-esteem scale: Self-evaluation of one’s social identity. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 18(3), 302–318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Macey, W., Schneider, B., Barbera, K., & Young, S. A. (2009). Employee engagement: Tools for analysis, practice, and competitive advantage. London: Blackwell.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Maignan, I., & Ferrell, O. C. (2000). Measuring corporate citizenship in two countries: The case of the United States and France. Journal of Business Ethics, 23(3), 283–297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. McWilliams, A., & Siegel, D. (2001). Corporate social responsibility: A theory of the firm perspective. Academy of Management Review, 26(1), 117–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Muthuri, J. N., Matten, D., & Moon, J. (2009). Employee volunteering and social capital: Contributions to corporate social responsibility. British Journal of Management, 20, 75–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Ng, A. K. (2001). Why Asians are less creative than Westerners. Singapore: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  69. North, D. C. (1990). Institutions, institutional change and economic performance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Olsen, J. M., Breckler, S. J., & Wiggins, E. C. (2008). Social psychology alive (1st ed.). Ontario: Nelson.Google Scholar
  71. Peloza, J. (2009). The challenge of measuring financial impacts from investments in corporate social performance. Journal of Management, 35(6), 1518–1541.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Pierce, J., Gardner, D., Cummings, L., & Dunham, R. (1989). Organisation-based self-esteem: Construct of definition, measurement and validation. Academy of Management Journal, 32(3), 633–648.Google Scholar
  73. Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2012). Sources of method bias in social science research and recommendations on how to control it. Annual Review of Psychology, 63, 539–569.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Porter, M. E., & Kramer, M. R. (2002). The competitive advantage of corporate philanthropy. Harvard Business Review, 80(12), 56–68.Google Scholar
  75. Rego, A., Leal, S., & e Cunha, M. P. (2011). Rethinking the employees’ perceptions of corporate citizenship dimensionalization. Journal of Business Ethics, 104(2), 207–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Riordan, C. M., Gatewood, R. D., & Bill, J. B. (1997). Corporate image: Employee reactions and implications for managing corporate social performance. Journal of Business Ethics, 16, 401–412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Rosso, B. D., Dekas, K. H., & Wrzesniewski, A. (2010). On the meaning of work: A theoretical integration and review. Research in Organizational Behavior, 30, 91–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Rupp, D. E., Shao, R., Thornton, M. A., & Skarlicki, D. P. (2013). Applicants’ and employees’ reactions to corporate social responsibility: The moderating effects of first-party justice perceptions and moral identity. Personnel Psychology, 66, 895–933.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Salanova, M., Agut, S., & Peiró, J. M. (2005). Linking organizational resources and work engagement to employee performance and customer loyalty: The mediating role of service climate. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90, 1217–1227.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Schaufeli, W. B., & Bakker, A. B. (2003). Test manual for the Utrecht work engagement scale. Unpublished manuscript. the Netherlands: Utrecht University Retrieved from http://www.schaufeli.com.Google Scholar
  81. Schaufeli, W. B., & Bakker, A. B. (2004). Job demands, job resources, and their relationship with burnout and engagement: A multi-sample study. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 25(3), 293–315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Schaufeli, W. B., Bakker, A. B., & Salanova, M. (2006). The measurement of work engagement with a short questionnaire a cross-national study. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 66(4), 701–716.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Schaufeli, W. B., Salanova, M., González-Romá, V., & Bakker, A. B. (2002). The measurement of engagement and burnout: A two sample confirmatory factor analytic approach. Journal of Happiness Studies, 3(1), 71–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Siemsen, E., Roth, A., & Oliveira, P. (2010). Common method bias in regression models with linear, quadratic, and interaction effects. Organizational Research Methods, 13(3), 456–476.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Story, J., & Neves, P. (2015). When corporate social responsibility (CSR) increases performance: Exploring the role of intrinsic and extrinsic CSR attribution. Business Ethics: A European Review, 24(2), 111–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Tajfel, H., & Turner, J. C. (1979). An integrative theory of intergroup conflict. In W. G. Austin & S. Worchel (Eds.), The Social Psychology of Intergroup Relations (pp. 33–47). Monterey: Brooks-Cole.Google Scholar
  87. Tajfel, H., & Turner, J. C. (1985). The social identity theory of intergroup behaviour. In S. Worchel & W. G. Austin (Eds.), Psychology of Intergroup Relations (pp. 6–24). Chicago: Nelson-Hall.Google Scholar
  88. Turban, D. B., & Greening, D. W. (1997). Corporate social performance and organizational attractiveness to prospective employees. Academy of Management Journal, 40(3), 658–673.Google Scholar
  89. Turker, D. (2006). The impact of employee perception of corporate social responsibility on organizational commitment: A scale development study. Unpublished Master’s Dissertation, Dokuz Eylul University. (Dokuz Eylül Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü İngilizce İşletme Anabilim Dalı Yüksek Lisans Tezi).Google Scholar
  90. Turker, D. (2009). Measuring corporate social responsibility: A scale development study. Journal of Business Ethics, 85(4), 411–427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Turner, J., & Oakes, P. (1986). The significance of the social identity concept for social psychology with reference to individualism, interactionism and social influence. British Journal of Social Psychology, 25(3), 237–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Twenge, J. M., & Campbell, W. K. (2002). Self-esteem and socioeconomic status: A meta-analytic review. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 6(1), 59–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Tyler, T. R., & Blader, S. (2000). Cooperation in groups: Procedural justice, social identity and behavioural engagement. New York: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  94. Valentine, S., & Fleischman, G. (2008). Ethics programs, perceived corporate social responsibility and job satisfaction. Journal of Business Ethics, 77, 159–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Waddock, S. (2004). Paeallel universes: Companies, academics and the progress of corporate citizenship. Business and Society Review, 109(1), 5–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. White, J. B., Tynan, R., Galinsky, A. D., & Thompson, L. (2004). Face threat sensitivity in negotiation: Roadblock to agreement and joint gain. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 94(2), 102–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Wong, N. Y., & Ahuvia, A. C. (1998). Personal taste and family face: Luxury consumption in Confucian and Western societies. Psychology and Marketing, 15(5), 423–441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Wood, D. J. (1991). Corporate social performance revisited. Academy of Management Review, 16(4), 691–718.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Xanthopoulou, D., Bakker, A. B., Demerouti, E., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2009). Work engagement and financial returns: A diary study on the role of job and personal resources. Journal of Organizational and Occupational Psychology, 82, 183–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Zhang, M., Fan, D., & Zhu, C. J. (2014). High-performance work systems, corporate social performance and employee outcomes: Exploring the missing links. Journal of Business Ethics, 120(3), 423–435.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of ManagementHuazhong University of Science and TechnologyWuhan CityPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Surrey Business SchoolUniversity of SurreyGuildfordUK

Personalised recommendations