Skip to main content

The Relationship of Coworker Incivility to Job Performance and the Moderating Role of Self-Efficacy and Compassion at Work: The Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) Approach

Abstract

Purpose

This study examined the relationship between coworker incivility and job performance via emotional exhaustion, and the moderating effect of employee self-efficacy and compassion at work on the relationship.

Design/Methodology/Approach

Drawing on the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model, we hypothesized an indirect relationship between coworker incivility and job performance through emotional exhaustion. Also, we predicted that the positive relationship between coworker incivility and emotional exhaustion would be weaker for employees with high self-efficacy and compassion experience at work. Surveys were gathered at two time points, 3 months apart, from 217 frontline employees of a five-star hotel in South Korea.

Findings

The results indicated that coworker incivility was negatively related to job performance and that the link was fully mediated by emotional exhaustion. Employees’ self-efficacy buffered the negative outcomes of coworker incivility, whereas experienced compassion at work did not moderate the relationship between coworker incivility and emotional exhaustion.

Implications

This study advances understanding of the negative consequences of coworker incivility and the ways to attenuate such negative effects. We suggested emotional exhaustion as a key psychological mechanism and revealed self-efficacy belief as a boundary condition related to coworker incivility.

Originality/Value

With a focus on emotional exhaustion, this study addresses the call for a better understanding of the psychological mechanism involved in workplace incivility. Also, we discovered the role that personal resources play in mitigating the negative effects of coworker incivility. Finally, we extend the literature by theorizing the boundary conditions of coworker incivility using the JD-R approach.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2

Notes

  1. We conducted a mediated moderation analysis with compassion at work as a single moderator, excluding job-related self-efficacy. The single moderation effect of compassion at work was marginally significant (b = .17, p < .10).

References

  • Aiken, L., & West, S. (1991). Multiple regression: Testing and interpreting interactions. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

    Google Scholar 

  • Andersson, L., & Pearson, C. (1999). Tit for tat? The spiraling effect of incivility in the workplace. Academy of Management Review, 24, 452–471.

    Google Scholar 

  • Asendorpf, J. B., van de Schoot, R., Denissen, J. J., & Hutteman, R. (2014). Reducing bias due to systematic attrition in longitudinal studies: The benefits of multiple imputation. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 38, 453–460.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Avey, J., Luthans, F., & Youssef, C. (2010). The additive value of positive psychological capital in predicting work attitudes and behavior. Journal of Management, 36, 430–452.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bacharach, S., Bamberger, P., & Conley, S. (1991). Work-home conflict among nurses and engineers: Mediating the impact of role stress on burnout and satisfaction at work. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 12, 39–53.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bailey, B. P., & Konstan, J. A. (2006). On the need for attention-aware systems: Measuring effects of interruption on task performance, error rate, and affective state. Computers in Human Behavior, 22, 685–708.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bakker, A., & Demerouti, E. (2007). The job demands-resources model: State of the art. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 22, 309–328.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Balducci, C., Cecchin, M., & Fraccaroli, F. (2012). The impact of role stressors on workplace bullying in both victims and perpetrators, controlling for personal vulnerability factors: A longitudinal analysis. Work & Stress, 26, 195–212.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York, NY: Freeman.

    Google Scholar 

  • Boles, J., Johnston, M., & Hair, J., Jr. (1997). Role stress, work-family conflict and emotional exhaustion: Inter-relationships and effects on some work-related consequences. Journal of Personal Selling and Sales Management, 17, 17–28.

    Google Scholar 

  • Boudrias, J., Desrumaux, P., Gaudreau, P., Nelson, K., Brunet, L., & Savoie, A. (2011). Modeling the experience of psychological health at work: The role of personal resources, social-organizational resources, and job demands. International Journal of Stress Management, 18, 372–395.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bowling, N., & Beehr, T. (2006). Workplace harassment from the victim’s perspective: A theoretical model and meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91, 998–1012.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Brislin, R. (1970). Back-translation for cross-cultural research. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 1, 195–216.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Brody, H. (1992). Assisted death-a compassionate response to a medical failure. New England Journal of Medicine, 327, 1384–1388.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Brotheridge, C. M., & Grandey, A. A. (2002). Emotional labor and burnout: Comparing two perspectives of ‘people work’. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 60, 17–39.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Caza, B., & Cortina, L. (2007). From insult to injury: Explaining the impact of incivility. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 29, 335–350.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Chi, S. C. S., & Liang, S. G. (2013). When do subordinates’ emotion-regulation strategies matter? Abusive supervision, subordinates’ emotional exhaustion, and work withdrawal. The Leadership Quarterly, 24, 125–137.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Chu, L.-C. (2016). Mediating positive moods: The impact of experiencing compassion at work. Journal of Nursing Management, 26, 59–69.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cortina, L. (2008). Unseen injustice: Incivility as modern discrimination in organizations. Academy of Management Review, 33, 55–75.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cortina, L., Magley, V., Williams, J., & Langhout, R. (2001). Incivility in the workplace: Incidence and impact. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 6, 64–80.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cropanzano, R., Rupp, D., & Byrne, Z. (2003). The relationship of emotional exhaustion to work attitudes, job performance and organizational citizenship behaviors. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88, 160–169.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • de Jonge, J., & Dormann, C. (2006). Stressors, resources, and strain at work: A longitudinal test of the triple-match principle. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91, 1359–1374.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • de Jonge, J., Dormann, C., van Vegchel, N., von Nordheim, T., Dollard, M., & Cotton, S. (2004). The demand-induced strain questionnaire (DISQ; English Version 1.1). http://www.jandejonge.nl/disq.html.

  • de Lange, A., Taris, T., Kompier, M., Houtman, I., & Bongers, P. (2003). “The very best of the millennium”: Longitudinal research and the demand-control-(support) model. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 8, 282–305.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Demerouti, E., & Bakker, A. (2011). The job demands-resources model: Challenges for future research. South African Journal of Industrial Psychology, 37, 1–9.

    Google Scholar 

  • Domagalski, T. A., & Steelman, L. A. (2005). The impact of work events and disposition on the experience and expression of employee anger. Organizational Analysis, 13, 31–52.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dutton, J., Frost, P., Worline, M., Lilius, J., & Kanov, J. (2002). Leading in times of trauma. Harvard Business Review, 80, 54–61.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Dutton, J. E., & Ragins, B. R. (2007). Exploring positive relationships at work. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dutton, J., Workman, K., & Hardin, A. (2014). Compassion at work. Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior, 1, 277–304.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Eid, M., & Diener, E. (2001). Norms for experiencing emotions in different cultures: Inter-and intranational differences. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81, 869–885.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Felblinger, D. (2008). Incivility and bullying in the workplace and nurses’ shame responses. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing, 37, 234–242.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ferguson, M. (2012). You cannot leave it at the office: Spillover and crossover of coworker incivility. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 3, 571–588.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Fernet, C., Austin, S., & Vallerand, R. (2012). The effects of work motivation on employee exhaustion and commitment: An extension of the JD-R model. Work & Stress, 26, 213–229.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18, 39–50.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Fox, S., & Spector, P. E. (2005). Counterproductive work behaviour: Investigations of actors and targets. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Fredrickson, B. (1998). What good are positive emotions? Review of General Psychology, 2, 300–319.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Fredrickson, B. (2001). The role of positive emotions in positive psychology. American Psychologist, 56, 218–226.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Frost, P. (2003). Toxic emotions at work: How compassionate managers handle pain and conflict. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Frost, P., Dutton, J., Worline, M., & Wilson, A. (2000). Narratives of compassion in organizations. In S. Fineman (Ed.), Emotions in organizations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

    Google Scholar 

  • Glomb, T., & Liao, H. (2003). Interpersonal aggression in work groups: Social influence, reciprocal, and individual effects. Academy of Management Journal, 46, 486–496.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Grandey, A. A. (2003). When “the show must go on”: Surface acting and deep acting as determinants of emotional exhaustion and peer-rated service delivery. Academy of Management Journal, 46, 86–96.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., Anderson, R. E., & Tatham, R. L. (2006). Multivariate data analysis (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hayes, A. F. (2013). Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: A regression-based approach. New York, NY: Guilford.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hayes, A. F. (2015). An index and test of linear moderated mediation. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 50, 1–22.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hobfoll, S. (2002). Social and psychological resources and adaptation. Review of General Psychology, 6, 307–324.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hochschild, A. R. (1983). The managed heart: Commercialization of human feeling. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hur, W. M., Kim, B. S., & Park, S. J. (2015). The relationship between coworker incivility, emotional exhaustion, and organizational outcomes: The mediating role of emotional exhaustion. Human Factors and Ergonomics in Manufacturing & Service Industries, 25, 701–712.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hur, W. M., Moon, T., & Rhee, S. Y. (2016). Exploring the relationships between compassion at work, the evaluative perspective of positive work-related identity, service employee creativity, and job performance. Journal of Services Marketing, 30, 103–114.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Jackson, D., Clare, J., & Mannix, J. (2002). Who would want to be a nurse? Violence in the workplace. Journal of Nursing Management, 10, 13–20.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Jackson, T., Dawson, R., & Wilson, D. (2003). Reducing the effect of email interruptions on employees. International Journal of Information Management, 23, 55–65.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kanov, J., Maitlis, S., Worline, M., Dutton, J., Frost, P., & Lilius, J. (2004). Compassion in organizational life. American Behavioral Scientist, 47, 808–827.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kaplan, S., Bradley, J. C., Luchman, J. N., & Haynes, D. (2009). On the role of positive and negative affectivity in job performance: A meta-analytic investigation. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94, 162–176.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Karatepe, O., & Olugbade, O. (2009). The effects of job and personal resources on hotel employees’ work engagement. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 28, 504–512.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kirkman, B., Chen, G., Farh, J., Chen, Z., & Lowe, K. (2009). Individual power distance orientation and follower reactions to transformational leaders: A cross-level, cross-cultural examination. Academy of Management Journal, 52, 744–794.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kohn, M., & Schooler, C. (1978). The reciprocal effects of the substantive complexity of work and intellectual flexibility: A longitudinal assessment. American Journal of Sociology, 84, 24–52.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ladebo, O., & Awotunde, J. (2007). Emotional and behavioral reactions to work overload: Self-efficacy as a moderator. Current Research in Social Psychology, 13, 86–100.

    Google Scholar 

  • Laschinger, H., Leiter, M., Day, A., & Gilin, D. (2009). Workplace empowerment, incivility, and burnout: Impact on staff nurse recruitment and retention outcomes. Journal of Nursing Management, 17, 302–311.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lee, R., & Ashforth, B. (1996). A meta-analytic examination of the correlates of the three dimensions of job burnout. Journal of Applied Psychology, 81, 123–133.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Liao, H., & Chuang, A. (2004). A multilevel investigation of factors influencing employee service performance and customer outcomes. Academy of Management Journal, 47, 41–58.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lilius, J., Kanov, J., Dutton, J., Worline, M., & Maitlis, S. (2011). Compassion revealed: What we know about compassion at work (and where we need to know more). In K. Cameron & G. Spreitzer (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of positive organizational scholarship. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lilius, J., Worline, M., Maitlis, S., Kanov, J., Dutton, J., & Frost, P. (2008). The contours and consequences of compassion at work. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 29, 193–218.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lim, S., & Cortina, L. (2005). Interpersonal mistreatment in the workplace: The interface and impact of general incivility and sexual harassment. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90, 483–496.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lim, S., Cortina, L., & Magley, V. (2008). Personal and workgroup incivility: Impact on work and health outcomes. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93, 95–107.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Liu, S., Luksyte, A., Zhou, L., Shi, J., & Wang, M. (2015). Overqualification and counterproductive work behaviors: Examining a moderated mediation model. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 36, 250–271.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Luthans, F., & Youssef, C. (2007). Emerging positive organizational behavior. Journal of Management, 33, 321–349.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Maslach, C., & Jackson, S. (1981). The measurement of experienced burnout. Journal of Occupational Behavior, 2, 99–113.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Matsumoto, D. (1990). Cultural similarities and differences in display rules. Motivation and Emotion, 14, 195–214.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Meier, L. L., & Spector, P. E. (2013). Reciprocal effects of work stressors and counterproductive work behavior: A five-wave longitudinal study. Journal of Applied Psychology, 98, 529–539.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Menon, T., Sheldon, O., & Galinsky, A. (2014). Barriers to transforming hostile relations: Why friendly gestures can backfire. Negotiation and Conflict Management Research, 7, 17–37.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Miner-Rubino, K., & Cortina, L. (2007). Beyond targets: Consequences of vicarious exposure to misogyny at work. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92, 1254–1269.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Miner-Rubino, K., & Reed, W. (2010). Testing a moderated meditational model of workgroup incivility: The roles of organizational trust and group regard. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 40, 3148–3168.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Moon, T. W., Hur, W. M., Ko, S. H., Kim, J. W., & Yoon, S. W. (2014). Bridging corporate social responsibility and compassion at work: Relations to organizational justice and affective organizational commitment. Career Development International, 19, 49–72.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ng, T. W., & Sorensen, K. L. (2008). Toward a further understanding of the relationships between perceptions of support and work attitudes: A meta-analysis. Group and Organization Management, 33, 243–266.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Nunnally, J. (1978). Psychometric theory. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

    Google Scholar 

  • Pearson, C., Andersson, L., & Porath, C. (2000). Assessing and attacking workplace incivility. Organizational Dynamics, 29, 123–137.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pearson, C., Andersson, L., & Wegner, J. (2001). When workers flout convention: A study of workplace incivility. Human Relations, 54, 1387–1419.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pearson, C., & Porath, C. (2009). The cost of bad behavior: How incivility is damaging your business and what to do about it. New York, NY: Penguin Group.

    Google Scholar 

  • Penny, L., & Spector, P. (2005). Job stress, incivility, and counterproductive work behaviour (CWB): The moderating role of negative affectivity. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 26, 777–796.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Perlow, L. A. (1999). The time famine: Toward a sociology of work time. Administrative Science Quarterly, 44, 57–81.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Podsakoff, P., MacKenzie, S., & Podsakoff, N. (2012). Sources of method bias in social science research and recommendations on how to control it. Annual Review of Psychology, 63, 539–569.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Porath, C., & Erez, A. (2007). Does rudeness really matter? The effects of rudeness on task performance and helpfulness. Academy of Management Journal, 50, 1181–1197.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Porath, C., & Erez, A. (2009). Overlooked but not untouched: How rudeness reduces onlookers’ performance on routine and creative tasks. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 109, 29–44.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Reio, T., & Ghosh, R. (2009). Antecedents and outcomes of workplace incivility: Implications for human resource development research and practice. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 20, 237–264.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Roberts, L. M. (2007). From proving to becoming: How positive relationships create a context for self-discovery and self-actualization. In J. E. Dutton & G. B. R. Ragins (Eds.), exploring positive relationships at work. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ross, L., & Ward, A. (1995). Psychological barriers to dispute resolution. In M. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 27). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sakurai, K., & Jex, S. (2012). Coworker incivility and incivility targets’ work effort and counterproductive work behaviors: The moderating role of supervisor social support. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 17, 150–161.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Schat, A., & Kelloway, E. (2000). Effects of perceived control on the outcomes of workplace aggression and violence. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 5, 386–402.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Schaubroeck, J., Lam, S., & Xie, J. (2000). Collective efficacy versus self-efficacy in coping responses to stressors and control: A cross-cultural study. Journal of Applied Psychology, 85, 512–525.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Schaufeli, W., & Bakker, A. (2004). Job demands, job resources, and their relationship with burnout and engagement: A multi-sample study. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 25, 293–315.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Schreurs, B., van Emmerik, H., Notelaers, G., & De Witte, H. (2010). Job insecurity and employee health: The buffering potential of job control and job self-efficacy. Work & Stress, 24, 56–72.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Shirom, A. (2003). Job-related burnout. In J. Quick & L. Tetrick (Eds.), Handbook of occupational health psychology. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sliter, M., Sliter, K., & Jex, S. (2012). The employee as a punching bag: The effect of multiple sources of incivility on employee withdrawal behavior and sales performance. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 33, 121–139.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Smith, L., Andrusyszyn, M., & Spence-Laschinger, H. (2010). Effects of workplace incivility and empowerment on newly-graduated nurses’ organizational commitment. Journal of Nursing Management, 18, 1004–1015.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Spector, P., & Fox, S. (2002). An emotion-centered model of voluntary work behavior: Some parallels between counterproductive work behavior and organizational citizenship behavior. Human Resource Management Review, 12, 269–292.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Spence Laschinger, H., Grau, A., Finegan, J., & Wilk, P. (2010). New graduate nurses’ experiences of bullying and burnout in hospital settings. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 66, 2732–2742.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Stajkovic, A., & Luthans, F. (1998). Self-efficacy and work-related performance: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 124, 240–261.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Taylor, S., & Kluemper, D. (2012). Linking perceptions of role stress and incivility to workplace aggression: The moderating role of personality. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 17, 316–329.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tepper, B. (2000). Consequences of abusive supervision. Academy of Management Journal, 43, 178–190.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Thoits, P. (1995). Stress, coping, and social support processes: Where are we? What next? Journal of Health and Social Behavior, Extra Issue, 36, 53–79.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Van der Doef, M., & Maes, S. (1999). The Job Demand-Control (-Support) model and psychological well-being: A review of 20 years of empirical research. Work & Stress, 13, 87–114.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • van Jaarsveld, D., Walker, D., & Skarlicki, D. (2010). The role of job demands and emotional exhaustion in the relationship between customer and employee incivility. Journal of Management, 36, 1486–1504.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Vickers, M. (2006). Writing what’s relevant: Workplace incivility in public administration- a wolf in sheep’s clothing. Administrative Theory and Praxis, 28, 69–88.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wang, G., & Netemeyer, R. (2002). The effects of job autonomy, customer demandingness, and trait competitiveness on salesperson learning, self-efficacy, and performance. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 30, 217–228.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Watson, D., Clark, L., & Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: The PANAS scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 1063–1070.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Weiss, H., & Cropanzano, R. (1996). Affective events theory: A theoretical discussion of the structure, causes and consequences of affective experiences at work. In B. Staw & L. Cummings (Eds.), Research in organizational behavior. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Xanthopoulou, D., Bakker, A., Demerouti, E., & Schaufeli, W. (2007). The role of personal resources in the Job Demands-Resources Model. International Journal of Stress Management, 14, 121–141.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zajonc, R. (1998). Emotions. In D. Gilbert, S. Fiske, & L. Gardner (Eds.), The handbook of social psychology (Vol. 1, 2). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

    Google Scholar 

  • Zapf, D., Dormann, C., & Frese, M. (1996). Longitudinal studies in organizational stress research: A review of the literature with reference to methodological issues. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 1, 145–169.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea Grant funded by the Korean Government(NRF-2014S1A5A2A03066047) and by 2014 Hongik University Research Fund.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Won-Moo Hur.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Rhee, SY., Hur, WM. & Kim, M. The Relationship of Coworker Incivility to Job Performance and the Moderating Role of Self-Efficacy and Compassion at Work: The Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) Approach. J Bus Psychol 32, 711–726 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10869-016-9469-2

Download citation

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10869-016-9469-2

Keywords

  • Coworker incivility
  • Emotional exhaustion
  • Job performance
  • Self-efficacy
  • Compassion at work