The purpose of this study was to develop and test a broaden-and-build model relating LMX to employees’ change-oriented behaviors (creative performance and taking charge) through the mediators of positive affect and psychological capital.
Time-lagged, two-source data were collected from 248 participants and 40 direct leaders, which composed a heterogeneous sample of professional jobs from a three-wave data collection strategy. Mplus was employed to test the proposed hypotheses.
We found that LMX predicts employees’ change-oriented behaviors through two sequential paths: (a) the positive affect mediates the relationship between LMX and employee psychological capital, and (b) psychological capital mediates the relationship between positive affect and employees’ creative performance and taking charge. Our results provide a logical explanation of the ‘broadening’ and ‘building’ mechanisms through which LMX enhances employees’ change-oriented behaviors.
This study specifically suggests affective and psychological mechanisms by promoting the broadening and building phases that facilitate the transformation of individual perceptions of LMX, positive affect, and psychological capital in explaining employees’ creative performance and taking charge.
This study develops a broaden-and-build model of change-oriented behaviors and contributes to research on proactive behaviors in the context of leader-member relationships.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Amabile, T. M. (1998). How to kill creativity. Harvard Business Review, 76, 77–87.
Amabile, T. M., Barsade, S. G., Mueller, J. S., & Staw, B. M. (2005). Affect and creativity at work. Administrative Science Quarterly, 50, 367–403.
Anderson, N., Potocnik, K., & Zhou, J. (2014). Innovation and creativity in organizations: A state-of-the-science review, prospective commentary, and guiding framework. Journal of Management, 40, 1297–1333. doi:10.1177/0149206314527128.
Atwater, L., & Carmeli, A. (2009). Leader-member exchange, feelings of energy, and involvement in creative work. The Leadership Quarterly, 20, 264–275. doi:10.1016/j.leaqua.2007.07.009.
Avey, J. B. (2014). The left side of psychological capital: New evidence on the antecedents of PsyCap. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 21, 141–149. doi:10.1177/1548051813515516.
Avey, J. B., Luthans, F., & Jensen, S. M. (2009). Psychological capital: A positive resource for combating employee stress and turnover. Human Resource Management, 48, 677–693. doi:10.1002/hrm.20294.
Avey, J. B., Luthans, F., Smith, R. M., & Palmer, N. F. (2010a). Impact of positive psychological capital on employee well-being over time. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 15, 17–28. doi:10.1037/a0016998.
Avey, J. B., Luthans, F., & Youssef, C. M. (2010b). The additive value of positive psychological capital in predicting work attitudes and behaviors. Journal of Management, 36, 430–452. doi:10.1177/0149206308329961.
Avey, J. B., Wernsing, T. S., & Luthans, F. (2008). Can positive employees help positive organization change? Impact of psychological capital and emotions on relevant attitudes and behaviors. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 44, 48–70. doi:10.1177/0021886307311470.
Avolio, B. J., & Luthans, F. (2006). The high impact leader: Moments matter for accelerating authentic leadership development. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Baas, M., De Dreu, C. K. W., & Nijstad, B. A. (2008). A meta-analysis of 25 years of mood-creativity research: Hedonic tone, activation, or regulatory focus? Psychological Bulletin, 134, 779–806. doi:10.1037/a0012815.
Bandura, A. (1989). Self-regulation of motivation and action through internal standards and goal systems. In L. A. Pervin (Ed.), Goal concepts in personality and social psychology (pp. 19–85). Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Bandura, A. (2001). Social cognitive theory: An agentic perspective. In S. T. Fiske (Ed.), Annual review of psychology (Vol. 52, pp. 1–26). Palo Alto: Annual Reviews Inc.
Belschak, F. D., & Den Hartog, D. N. (2010). Pro-self, pro-social, and pro-organizational foci of proactive behavior: Differential antecedents and consequences. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 83, 475–498. doi:10.1348/096317909X439208.
Bindl, U. K., & Parker, S. K. (2010). Proactive work behavior: Forward-thinking and change-oriented action in organizations. In S. Zedeck (Ed.), APA handbook of industrial and organizational psychology (Vol. 2, pp. 567–598). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Bliese, P. D. (2000). Within-group agreement, non-independence, and reliability: Implications for data aggregation and analyses. In K. J. Klein & S. W. J. Kozlowski (Eds.), Multilevel theory, research, and methods in organizations: Foundations, extensions, and new directions (pp. 349–381). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Brislin, R. W. (1970). Back-translation for cross-cultural research. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 1, 185–216. doi:10.1177/135910457000100301.
Chiaburu, D. S., & Baker, V. L. (2006). Extra-role behaviors challenging the status quo: Validity and antecedents of taking charge behaviors. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 21, 620–637. doi:10.1108/02683940610690178.
Duarte, N. T., Goodson, J. R., & Klich, N. R. (1994). Effects of dyadic quality and duration on performance appraisal. Academy of Management Journal, 37, 499–521. doi:10.2307/256698.
Dutton, J. E. (2003). Energize your workplace: How to build and sustain high-quality relationships at work. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Eisenberger, R., Huntington, R., Hutchinson, S., & Sowa, D. (1986). Perceived organizational support. Journal of Applied Psychology, 71, 500–507.
Eisenberger, R., Stinglhamber, F., Vandenberghe, C., Sucharski, I., & Rhoades, L. (2002). Perceived supervisor support: Contributions to perceived organizational support and employee retention. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87, 565–573. doi:10.1037//0021-9010.87.3.565.
Erdogan, B., & Bauer, T. N. (2005). Enhancing career benefits of employee proactive personality: The role of fit with jobs and organizations. Personnel Psychology, 58, 859–891. doi:10.1111/j.1744-6570.2005.00772.x.
Erdogan, B., & Bauer, T. N. (in press). Leader-member exchange (LMX) theory: The relational approach to leadership. In D. Day (Ed.). Oxford handbook of leadership and organizations. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Farmer, S. M., Tierney, P., & Kung-McIntyre, K. (2003). Employee creativity in Taiwan: An application of role identity theory. Academy of Management Journal, 46, 618–630. doi:10.2307/30040653.
Fredrickson, B. L. (1998). What good are positive emotions? Review of General Psychology, 2, 300–319. doi:10.1037/1089-26184.108.40.2060.
Fredrickson, B. L. (2000). Cultivating positive emotions to optimize health and well-being. Prevention & Treatment, 3, Article 0001a. Retrieved from http://journals.apa.org/prevention.
Fredrickson, B. L. (2001). The role of positive emotions in positive psychology: The broaden-and-build theory of positive emotion. American Psychologist, 56, 218–226. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.56.3.218.
Fredrickson, B. L. (2003). The value of positive emotions. American Scientist, 91, 330–335.
Fredrickson, B. L. (2004). The broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B-Biological Sciences, 359, 1367–1377. doi:10.1098/rstb.2004.1512.
Fredrickson, B. L. (2013). Positive emotions broaden and build. In P. Devine & A. Plant (Eds.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 47, pp. 1–54). San Diego: Academic Press.
Fredrickson, B. L., & Branigan, C. (2001). Positive emotions. In T. J. Mayne & G. A. Bonnano (Eds.), Emotion: Current issues and future directions (pp. 123–151). New York: Guilford Press.
Fredrickson, B. L., Cohn, M. A., Coffey, K., Pek, J., & Finkel, S. M. (2008). Open hearts build lives: Positive emotions, induced through meditation, build consequential personal resources. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 95, 1045–1062. doi:10.1037/a0013262.
Fredrickson, B. L., & Losada, M. F. (2005). Positive affect and the complex dynamics of human flourishing. American Psychologist, 60, 678–686. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.60.7.678.
Fritz, C., & Sonnentag, S. (2009). Antecedents of day-level proactive behavior: A look at job stressors and positive affect during the workday. Journal of Management, 35, 95–111. doi:10.1177/0149206307308911.
Fuller, J. B., & Marler, L. E. (2009). Change driven by nature: A meta-analytic review of the proactive personality literature. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 75, 329–345. doi:10.1016/j.jvb.2009.05.008.
Graen, G. B., & Uhl-Bien, M. (1995). Relationship-based approach to leadership: Development of leader-member exchange (LMX) theory of leadership over 25 years: Applying a multi-level multi-domain perspective. The Leadership Quarterly, 6, 219–247.
Graham, J. W. (1986). Principled organizational dissent: A theoretical essay. In B. M. Staw & L. L. Cummings (Eds.), Research in organizational behavior (Vol. 8, pp. 1–52). Greenwich: JAI Press.
Grant, A. M., & Ashford, S. J. (2008). The dynamics of proactivity at work. Research in Organizational Behavior, 28, 3–34. doi:10.1016/j.riob.2008.04.002.
Harris, K. J., Kacmar, K. M., Zivnuska, S., & Shaw, J. D. (2007). The impact of political skill on impression management effectiveness. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92, 278–285.
Hirst, G., Van Knippenberg, D., & Zhou, J. (2009). A cross level perspective on employee creativity: Goal orientation, team learning behavior, and individual creativity. Academy of Management Journal, 52, 280–293. doi:10.5465/AMJ.2009.37308035.
Huang, X., Wright, R. P., Chiu, W. C., & Wang, C. (2008). Relational schemas as sources of evaluation and misevaluation of leader-member exchanges: Some initial evidence. The Leadership Quarterly, 19, 266–282. doi:10.1016/j.leaqua.2008.03.003.
Isen, A. M. (2000). Positive affect and decision making. In M. Lewis & J. Haviland-Jones (Eds.), Handbook of emotions (Vol. 2, pp. 417–435). New York: Guilford Press.
Isen, A. M., & Daubman, K. A. (1984). The influence of affect on categorization. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 47, 1206–1217. doi:10.1037/0022-35220.127.116.116.
Isen, A. M., Daubman, K. A., & Nowicki, G. P. (1987). Positive affect facilitates creative problem solving. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 1122–1131. doi:10.1037/0022-3518.104.22.1682.
Isen, A. M., Johnson, M. M. S., Mertz, E., & Robinson, G. F. (1985). The influence of positive affect on the unusualness of word associations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 48, 1413–1426.
Isen, A. M., & Means, B. (1983). The influence of positive affect on decision-making strategy. Social Cognition, 2, 18–31. doi:10.1521/soco.1922.214.171.124.
Isen, A. M., Rosenzweig, A. S., & Young, M. J. (1991). The influence of positive affect on clinical problem solving. Medical Decision Making, 11, 221–227. doi:10.1177/0272989X9101100313.
Janssen, O., & Van Yperen, N. W. (2004). Employees’ goal orientations, the quality of leader-member exchange, and the outcomes of job performance and job satisfaction. Academy of Management Journal, 47, 368–384. doi:10.2307/20159587.
Judge, T. A., Jackson, C. L., Shaw, J. C., Scott, B. A., & Rich, B. L. (2007). Self-efficacy and work-related performance: The integral role of individual differences. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92, 107–127. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.92.1.107.
Kahn, B., & Isen, A. M. (1993). The influence of positive affect on variety-seeking among safe, enjoyable products. Journal of Consumer Research, 20, 257–270. doi:10.1086/209347.
Law, K. S., Wang, H., & Hui, C. (2010). Currencies of exchange and global LMX: How they affect employee task performance and extra-role performance. Asia Pacific Journal of Management, 27, 625–646. doi:10.1007/s10490-009-9141-8.
LePine, J. A., & Van Dyne, L. (2001). Voice and cooperative behavior as contrasting forms of contextual performance: Evidence of differential relationships with big five personality characteristics and cognitive ability. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86, 326–336. doi:10.1037//0021-9010.86.2.326.
Li, N., Chiaburu, D. S., Kirkman, B. L., & Xie, Z. T. (2013). Spotlight on the followers: Neutralizing the effect of transformational leadership on subordinates’ citizenship and taking charge. Personnel Psychology, 66, 225–260. doi:10.1111/peps.12014.
Li, N., Liang, J., & Crant, J. M. (2010). The role of proactive personality in job satisfaction and organizational citizenship behavior: A relational perspective. Journal of Applied Psychology, 95, 395–404. doi:10.1037/a0018079.
Liao, H., Liu, D., & Loi, R. (2010). Looking at both sides of the social exchange coin: A social cognitive perspective on the joint effects of relationship quality and differentiation on creativity. Academy of Management Journal, 53, 1090–1109. doi:10.5465/AMJ.2010.54533207.
Luthans, F., Avey, J. B., Avolio, B. J., Norman, S. M., & Combs, G. J. (2006). Psychological capital development: Toward a micro-intervention. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 27, 387–393. doi:10.1002/job.373.
Luthans, F., Avolio, B. J., Avey, J. B., & Norman, S. M. (2007). Positive psychological capital: Measurement and relationship with performance and satisfaction. Personnel Psychology, 60, 541–572. doi:10.1111/j.1744-6570.2007.00083.x.
Luthans, B. C., Luthans, K. W., & Avey, J. B. (2014). Building the leaders of tomorrow: The development of academic psychological capital. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 21, 191–199. doi:10.1177/1548051813517003.
Luthans, F., Norman, S. M., Avolio, B. J., & Avey, J. B. (2008). The mediating role of psychological capital in the supportive organizational climate—employee performance relationship. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 29, 219–238. doi:10.1002/job.507.
Luthans, F., & Youssef, C. M. (2007). Emerging positive organizational behavior. Journal of Management, 33, 321–349. doi:10.1177/0149206307300814.
Madjar, N., Oldham, G. R., & Pratt, M. G. (2002). There’s no place like home? The contributions of work and non-work creativity support to employee’s creative performance. Academy of Management Journal, 45, 757–767. doi:10.2307/3069309.
McAllister, D. J., Kamdar, D., Morrison, E. W., & Turban, D. B. (2007). Disentangling role perceptions: How perceived role breadth, discretion, instrumentality and efficacy relate to helping and taking charge. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92, 1200–1211. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.92.5.1200.
Memili, E., Welsh, D. H. B., & Kaciak, E. (2014). Organizational psychological capital of family franchise firms through the lens of the leader-member exchange theory. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 21, 200–209. doi:10.1177/1548051813515513.
Miner, A. G., & Glomb, T. M. (2010). State mood, task performance, and behavior at work: A within-persons approach. Organizational Behavior and Human Decisions Processes, 112, 43–57. doi:10.1016/j.obhdp.2009.11.009.
Morrison, E. W., & Phelps, C. C. (1999). Taking charge at work: Extrarole efforts to initiate workplace change. Academy of Management Journal, 42, 403–419. doi:10.2307/257011.
Near, J. P., & Miceli, M. P. (1987). Whistle-blowers in organizations: Dissidents or reformers? Organizational Behavior, 9, 321–368.
Ohly, S., Sonnentag, S., & Pluntke, F. (2006). Routinization, work characteristics, and their relationships with creative and proactive behaviors. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 27, 257–279. doi:10.1002/job.376.
Olsson, L., Hemlin, S., & Pousette, A. (2012). A multi-level analysis of leader-member exchange and creative performance in research groups. The Leadership Quarterly, 23, 604–619. doi:10.1016/j.leaqua.2011.12.011.
Organ, D. W. (1988). Organizational citizenship behaviour: The good soldier syndrome. Lexington: Lexington Books.
Parker, S. K. (1998). Enhancing role breadth self-efficacy: The roles of job enrichment and other organizational interventions. Journal of Applied Psychology, 83, 835–852.
Parker, S. K., Bindl, U. K., & Strauss, K. (2010). Making things happen: A model of proactive motivation. Journal of Management, 36, 827–856. doi:10.1177/0149206310363732.
Parker, S. K., & Collins, C. G. (2010). Taking stock: Integrating and differentiating multiple proactive behaviors. Journal of Management, 36, 633–662. doi:10.1177/0149206308321554.
Parker, S. K., Williams, H. M., & Turner, N. (2006). Modeling the antecedents of proactive behavior at work. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91, 636–652. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.91.3.636.
Podsakoff, P. M., & MacKenzie, S. B. (1994). Organizational citizenship behaviors and sales unit effectiveness. Journal of Marketing Research, 3, 351–363.
Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Lee, J. Y., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2003). Common method biases in behavioral research: A critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88, 879–903. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.88.5.879.
Preacher, K. J., Zyphur, M. J., & Zhang, Z. (2010). A general multilevel SEM framework for assessing multilevel mediation. Psychological Methods, 15, 209–233. doi:10.1037/a0020141.
Raudenbush, S. W., & Bryk, A. S. (2002). Hierarchical linear models: Applications and data analysis methods. Newbury Park: Sage.
Rego, A., Machado, F., Leal, S., & Cunha, M. P. E. (2009). Are hopeful employees more creative? An empirical study. Creativity Research Journal, 21, 223–231. doi:10.1080/10400410902858733.
Rego, A., Sousa, F., Marques, C., & Cunha, M. P. (2012). Optimism predicting employees’ creativity: The mediating role of positive affect and the positivity ratio. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 21, 244–270. doi:10.1080/1359432X.2010.550679.
Salancik, G. R., & Pfeffer, J. (1978). A social information processing approach to job attitudes and task design. Administrative Science Quarterly, 23, 224–253.
Salanova, M., Llorens, S., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2011). Yes, I can, I feel good, and I just do it! On gain cycles and spirals of efficacy beliefs, affect, and engagement. Applied Psychology, 60, 255–285. doi:10.1111/j.1464-0597.2010.00435.x.
Scandura, T. A., & Graen, G. (1984). Moderating effects of initial leader-member exchange status on the effects of a leadership intervention. Journal of Applied Psychology, 71, 579–584.
Sekiguchi, T. (2010). Career development of Japanese college students through part-time work: The role of leader-member exchange and taking charge behavior. Retrieved from http://www2.econ.osaka-u.ac.jp/library/global/dp/1010.pdf.
Shalley, C. E., & Gilson, L. L. (2004). What leaders need to know: A review of social and contextual factors that can foster or hinder creativity. The Leadership Quarterly, 15, 33–53. doi:10.1016/j.leaqua.2003.12.004.
Shamir, B., House, R. J., & Arthur, M. B. (1993). The motivational effects of charismatic leadership: A self-concept based theory. Organization Science, 4, 577–594.
Shin, J., Taylor, M. S., & Seo, M. G. (2012). Resources for change: The relationships of organizational inducements and psychological resilience to employees’ attitudes and behaviors toward organizational change. Academy of Management Journal, 55, 727–748. doi:10.5465/amj.2010.0325.
Snyder, C. R. (2002). Hope theory: Rainbows in the mind. Psychological Inquiry, 13, 249–275. doi:10.1207/S15327965PLI1304_01.
Sweetman, D., Luthans, F., Avey, J. B., & Luthans, B. C. (2011). Relationship between positive psychological capital and creative performance. Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences, 28, 4–13. doi:10.1002/cjas.175.
Thomas, J. P., Whitman, D. S., & Viswesvaran, C. (2010). Employee proactivity in organizations: A comparative meta-analysis of emergent proactive constructs. Journal Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 83, 275–300. doi:10.1348/096317910X502359.
Tierney, P., & Farmer, S. M. (2002). Creative self-efficacy: Its potential antecedents and relationship to creative performance. Academy of Management Journal, 45, 1137–1148. doi:10.2307/3069429.
Tse, H. M., Dasborough, M., & Ashkanasy, N. M. (2008). A multilevel analysis of team climate and interpersonal exchange relationships at work. The Leadership Quarterly, 19, 195–211. doi:10.1016/j.leaqua.2008.01.005.
Vacharkulksemsuk, T., & Fredrickson, B. L. (2012). Strangers in sync: Achieving embodied rapport through shared movements. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 48, 399–402. doi:10.1016/j.jesp.2011.07.015.
Van Dyne, L., Cummings, L. L., & McLean-Parks, J. (1995). Extra role behaviors: In pursuit of construct and definitional clarity (a bridge over muddied waters). In L. L. Cummings & B. M. Staw (Eds.), Research in organizational behavior (Vol. 17, pp. 215–285). Greenwich: JAI Press.
Van Dyne, L., Kamdar, D., & Joireman, J. (2008). In-role perceptions buffer the negative impact of low LMX on helping and enhance the positive impact of high LMX on voice. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93, 1195–1207. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.93.6.1195.
Van Dyne, L., & LePine, J. A. (1998). Helping and voice extra-role behaviors: Evidence of construct and predictive validity. Academy of Management Journal, 41, 108–119. doi:10.2307/256902.
Van Scotter, J. R., & Motowidlo, S. J. (1996). Interpersonal facilitation and job dedication as separate facets of contextual performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 81, 525–531.
Volmer, J., Spurk, D., & Niessen, C. (2012). Leader-member exchange (LMX), job autonomy, and creative work involvement. The Leadership Quarterly, 23, 456–465. doi:10.1016/j.leaqua.2011.10.005.
Wang, H., Law, K. S., Hackett, R. D., Wang, D., & Chen, Z. X. (2005). Leader-member exchange as a mediator of the relationship between transformational leadership and followers’ performance and organizational citizenship behavior. Academy of Management Journal, 48, 420–432. doi:10.5465/AMJ.2005.17407908.
Watson, D., Clark, L. A., & Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: The PANAS scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 1063–1070. doi:10.1037/0022-35126.96.36.1993.
Muthén, L. K. & Muthén, B. O. (1998–2010). Mplus user’s guide (6th edn.). Los Angeles, CA: Muthén & Muthén
Yrle, A. C., Hartman, S. J., & Galle, W. P. (2002). An investigation of relationship between communication style and leader-member exchange. Journal of Communication Management, 6, 257–269.
Yu, C., & Frenkel, S. J. (2013). Explaining task performance and creativity from perceived organizational support theory: Which mechanisms are more important? Journal of Organizational Behavior, 34, 1165–1181. doi:10.1002/job.1844.
Zhang, Z., Wang, M., & Shi, J. (2012). Leader-follower congruence in proactive personality and work outcomes: The mediating role of leader-member exchange. Academy of Management Journal, 55, 111–130. doi:10.5465/amj.2009.0865.
Rights and permissions
About this article
Cite this article
Lin, CC., Kao, YT., Chen, YL. et al. Fostering Change-Oriented Behaviors: A Broaden-and-Build Model. J Bus Psychol 31, 399–414 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10869-015-9417-6
- Leader-member exchange
- Positive affect
- Psychological capital
- Creative performance
- Taking charge
- Broaden-and-build theory