The goal of the present study was to explore the potential impact of within-team value diversity with respect to both team processes and task performance.
We explored value diversity within a comprehensive framework such that all components of basic human values were examined. A sample of 306 participants randomly assigned to 60 teams, performed a complex hands-on task, demanding high interdependence among team members, and completed different measures of values and team processes.
Results indicated that value diversity among team members had no significant impact on task performance. However, diversity with respect to several value dimensions had a significant unique effect on team process criteria. Results were consistent with respect to the nature of the impact of value diversity on team process outcomes. Specifically, the impact of team value diversity was such that less diversity was positively related to process outcomes (i.e., more similarity resulted in more team cohesion and efficacy and less conflict).
The results indicated that disparity among teammates in many of these values may have important implications on subsequent team-level phenomena. We suggest team leaders and facilitators of teambuilding efforts could consider adding to their agendas a session with team members to analyze and discuss the combined value profiles of their team.
This is the first study to highlight the unique impact of many unexamined, specific components of team diversity with respect to values on team effectiveness criteria.
This is a preview of subscription content,to check access.
Access this article
We calculated r wg(j) using the uniform expected null distribution.
Aitken-Schermer, J., Feather, N. T., Zhu, G., & Martin, N. G. (2008). Phenotypic, genetic, and environmental properties of Portraits Values Questionnaire. Twin Research and Human Genetics, 11, 531–537.
Allen, N. J., & O’Neill, T. A. (2010, July). The trajectory of emergence: Mining the literature for clues. Extended abstract presented at the annual meeting of the Interdisciplinary Network for Group Research, Washington, DC.
Amason, A. C. (1996). Distinguishing the effects of functional and dysfunctional conflict on strategic decision making: Resolving a paradox for top management teams. Academy of Management Journal, 39, 123–148.
Amason, A. C., & Schweiger, D. M. (1994). Resolving the paradox of conflict, strategic decision making, and organizational performance. International Journal of Conflict Management, 5, 239–253.
Applebaum, E., & Batt, R. (1994). The new American workplace. Ithaca, NY: ILR Press.
Arciniega, L. M., & Castañón, M. A. (2002). El puente chino: un reto de equipo. [The Chinese bridge: A team challenge]. Department of Management, ITAM. Mexico.
Azen, R., & Budescu, D. V. (2003). The dominance analysis approach for comparing predictors in multiple regression. Psychological Methods, 8, 129–148.
Baron, R. A. (1991). Positive effects of conflict: A cognitive perspective. Employee Responsibilities and Rights Journal, 4, 25–36.
Barrick, M. R., Stewart, G. L., Neubert, M. J., & Mount, K. (1998). Relating member ability and personality to work-team processes and team effectiveness. Journal of Applied Psychology, 83(3), 377–391.
Beal, D. J., Cohen, R. R., Burke, M. J., & McLendon, C. L. (2003). Cohesion and performance in groups: A meta-analytic clarification of construct relations. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88, 989–1004.
Bedeian, A. G., & Mossholder, K. W. (2000). On the use of the coefficient of variation as a measure of diversity. Organizational Research Methods, 3(3), 285–297.
Bell, S. T. (2007). Deep-level composition variables as predictors of team performance: A meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92, 595–615.
Bettenhausen, K. L. (1991). Five years of group research: What have we learned and what needs to be addressed. Journal of Management, 17(2), 345–381.
Budescu, D. V. (1993). Dominance analysis: A new approach to the problem of relative importance of predictors in multiple regression. Psychological Bulletin, 114, 542–551.
Byrne, D. E. (1971). The attraction paradigm. New York: Academic Press.
Campion, M. A., Medsker, G. J., & Higgs, A. C. (1993). Relations between work group characteristics and effectiveness: Implications for designing effective work groups. Personnel Psychology, 46, 823–850.
Chiocchio, F., & Essiembre, H. (2009). Cohesion and performance: A meta-analytic review of disparities between project teams, production teams and service teams. Small Group Research, 40, 382–420.
Cox, T. H., & Blake, S. (1991). Managing cultural diversity: Implications for organizational competitiveness. Academy of Management Executive, 5, 45–56.
De Dreu, C. K. W., & Weingart, L. R. (2003). Task versus relationship conflict, team performance, and team member satisfaction: A meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88, 741–749.
Easley, C. A. (2001). Developing, valuing, and managing diversity in the new millennium. Organizational Development Journal, 19(4), 38–50.
Eby, L. T., & Dobbins, G. H. (1997). Collectivism orientation in teams: An individual and group-level analysis. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 18, 275–295.
Evan, W. (1965). Conflict and performance in R&D organizations. Industrial Management Review, 7, 37–48.
Fisher, S. G., Macrosson, W. D. K., & Yusuff, M. R. (1996). Team performance and human values. Psychological Reports, 79, 1019–1024.
Fotopoulos, C., Krystallis, A., & Pagiaslis, A. (2011). Portrait value questionnaire’s (PVQ) usefulness in explaining quality food-related consumer behavior. British Food Journal, 113, 248–279.
Giberson, T. R., Resick, C. J., & Dickson, M. W. (2005). Embedding leader characteristics: An examination of homogeneity of personality and values in organizations. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90(5), 1002–1010.
Gibson, C. B. (1999). Do they believe they can? Group-efficacy and group performance across tasks and cultures. Academy of Management Journal, 42, 138–152.
Gibson, C. B., Randel, A. E., & Earley, P. C. (2000). Understanding group efficacy: An empirical test of multiple assessment methods. Group and Organization Management, 25, 67–97.
Gladstein, D. L. (1984). Groups in context: A model of task group effectiveness. Administrative Science Quarterly, 29, 499–517.
Gully, S. M., Incalcaterra, K. A., Joshi, A., & Beaubien, J. M. (2002). A meta-analysis of team-efficacy, potency, and performance: Interdependence and level of analysis as moderators of observed relationships. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(5), 819–832.
Hackman, J. R. (1987). The design of work teams. In J. W. Lorsch (Ed.), Handbook of organizational behavior (pp. 315–342). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Hackman, J. R., & Morris, C. G. (1975). Group tasks, group interaction process, and group performance effectiveness: A review and proposed integration. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 8, pp. 45–99). New York: Academic Press.
Harrison, D. A., Price, K. H., & Bell, M. P. (1998). Beyond relational demography: Time and the effects of surface- and deep-level diversity on work group cohesion. Academy of Management Journal, 41(1), 96–107.
Harrison, D. A., Price, K. H., Gavin, J. H., & Florey, A. T. (2002). Time, teams, and task performance: Changing effects of surface- and deep-level diversity on group functioning. Academy of Management Journal, 45(5), 1029–1045.
Hofstede, G. (1991). Cultures and organizations: Software of the mind. London: McGraw Hill.
Hollenbeck, J. R., DeRue, D. S., & Guzzo, R. (2004). Bridging the gap between I/O research and HR practice: Improving team composition, team training, and team task design. Human Resource Management, 43(4), 353–366.
Horwitz, S. K. (2005). The compositional impact of team diversity on performance: Theoretical considerations. Human Resource Development Review, 4(2), 219–245.
Horwitz, S. K., & Horwitz, I. B. (2007). The effects of team diversity on team outcomes: A meta-analytic review of team demography. Journal of Management, 33, 987–1015.
Ilgen, D. R. (1999). Teams embedded in organizations: Some implications. American Psychologist, 54, 129–139.
Jackson, S. E., May, K. E., & Whitney, K. (1995). Understanding the dynamics of diversity in decision-making teams. In R. A. Guzzo & E. Salas (Eds.), Team effectiveness and decision making in organizations (pp. 204–261). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Jackson, S. E., & Rudermann, M. (1997). Diversity in workteams. Washington, DC: APA Books.
James, L. R. (1982). Aggregation bias in estimates of perceptual agreement. Journal of Applied Psychology, 67, 219–229.
James, L. R., Demaree, R. G., & Wolf, G. (1984). Estimating within-group interrater reliability with and without response bias. Journal of Applied Psychology, 69, 85–98.
Jehn, K. (1994). Enhancing effectiveness: An investigation of advantages and disadvantages of value-based intragroup conflict. International Journal of Conflict Management, 5, 223–238.
Jehn, K. A., Chadwick, C., & Thatcher, S. M. B. (1997). To agree or not to agree: The effects of value congruence, individual demographic dissimilarity, and conflict on workgroup outcomes. International Journal of Conflict Management, 8(4), 287–305.
Jehn, K. A., & Mannix, E. A. (2001). The dynamic nature of conflict: A longitudinal study of intragroup conflict and group performance. Academy of Management Journal, 44, 238–251.
Joshi, A., & Roh, H. (2008). A contextual reexamination of work team diversity research: Review and future agenda. In E. Mannix & M. Neale (Eds.), Research on managing groups and teams (Vol. 11, pp. 25–53). Emerald Publishing, Bradford.
Kirkman, B. L., & Shapiro, D. L. (2001). The impact of team members’ cultural values on productivity, cooperation, and empowerment in self-managing work teams. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 32, 597–617.
Klein, K. J., Knight, A. P., Ziegert, J. C., Lim, B. C., & Saltz, J. L. (2011). When team members’ values differ: The moderating role of team leadership. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 114, 25–36.
Kluckhohn, C. (1951). Values and value-orientations in the theory of action. In T. Parsons & E. Shils (Eds.), Toward a general theory of action (pp. 388–433). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Kravitz, D. A. (2005). Diversity in teams: A two-edged sword requires careful handling. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 6(2), i–ii.
Landis, J. R., & Koch, G. G. (1977). The measurement of observer agreement for categorical data. Biometrics, 33, 159–174.
LeBretton, J. M., Burgess, J. R., Kaiser, R. B., Atchley, E., & James, L. R. (2003). The restriction of variance hypothesis and interrater reliability and agreement: Are ratings from multiple sources really dissimilar? Organizational Research Methods, 6, 80–128.
Liem, G. A. D., Martin, A. J., Nair, E., Bernardo, A. B. I., & Prasetya, P. H. (2011). Content and structure of values in middle adolescence: Evidence from Singapore, the Philippines, Indonesia, and Australia. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 42, 146–154.
Mannix, E., & Neale, M. A. (2005). What differences make a difference?: The promise and reality of diverse teams in organizations. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 6(2), 31–55.
Maznevski, M. L., DiStefano, J. J., Gomez, C. B., Noorderhaven, N. G., & Wu, P. C. (2002). Cultural dimensions at the individual level of analysis: The cultural orientations frame work. International Journal of Cross Cultural Management, 2, 275–295.
Milliken, F. J., & Martins, L. L. (1996). Searching for common threads: Understanding the multiple effects of diversity in organizational groups. Academy of Management Review, 21(2), 402–433.
Mohammed, S., & Angell, L. C. (2003). Personality heterogeneity in teams: Which differences make a difference for team performance? Small Group Research, 34(6), 651–677.
Mohammed, S., & Angell, L. C. (2004). Surface- and deep-level diversity in workgroups: Examining the moderating effects of team orientation and team process on relationship conflict. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 25, 1015–1039.
Morgan, B. B., & Lassiter, D. L. (1992). Team composition and staffing. In R. W. Sweezey & E. Salas (Eds.), Teams: Their training and performance (pp. 75–100). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
Moynihan, L., & Peterson, R. S. (2001). A contingent configuration approach to understanding the role of personality in organizational groups. In B. M. Straw & R. I. Sutton (Eds.), Research in organizational behavior (Vol. 23, pp. 327–378). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
Mullen, B., & Copper, C. (1994). The relation between group cohesiveness and performance: An integration. Psychological Bulletin, 115, 210–227.
Neuman, G. A., Wagner, S. H., & Christiansen, N. D. (1999). The relationship between work-team personality composition and job performance of teams. Group and Organizational Management, 24, 28–45.
O’Reilly, C. A., Chatman, J., & Caldwell, D. F. (1991). People and organizational culture: A profile comparison approach to assessing person-organization fit. Academy of Management Journal, 34, 487–516.
Podsakoff, P. M., & MacKenzie, S. B. (1994). Substitutes for leadership and the management of professionals. The Leadership Quarterly, 4(1), 1–44.
Rodriguez, R. A. (1998). Challenging demographic reductionism: A pilot study investigating diversity in group composition. Small Group Research, 29, 744–759.
Rokeach, M. (1979). Understanding human values: individual and societal. New York: Free Press.
Rosenbaum, M. E. (1986). The repulsion hypothesis: On the non-development of relationships. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 1156–1166.
Schneider, B. (1987). The people make the place. Personnel Psychology, 40, 437–454.
Schwartz, S. H. (1992). Universals in the content and structure of values: Theoretical advances and empirical tests in 20 countries. In M. P. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 25, pp. 1–65). San Diego: Academic Press.
Schwartz, S. H., Melech, G., Lehmann, A., Burgess, S., Harris, M., & Owens, V. (2001). Extending the cross-cultural validity of the theory of basic human values with a different method of measurement. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 32(5), 519–542.
Shea, G. P., & Guzzo, R. A. (1987). Group effectiveness: What really matters? Sloan Management Review, 28(3), 25–31.
Shrout, P. E., & Fleiss, J. L. (1979). Intraclass correlations: Uses in assessing rater reliability. Psychological Bulletin, 2, 420–428.
Smith, P. B., & Schwartz, S. H. (1997). Values. In J. W. B. Berry, M. H. Segall, & C. Kagitcibasi (Eds.), Handbook of cross cultural psychology: Social behaviors and applications (Vol. 3, pp. 77–118). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
Steiner, I. D. (1972). Group process and productivity. New York: Academic Press.
Steinmetz, H., Isidor, R., & Baeuerle, N. (2012). Testing the circular structure of human values: A meta-analytical structural equation modelling approach. Survey Research Methods, 6, 61–75.
Swezey, R. W., & Salas, E. (1992). Guidelines for use in team-training development. In R. W. Swezey & E. Salas (Eds.), Teams: Their training and performance (pp. 219–245). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
Tajfel, H. (1978). Differentiation between social groups: Studies in the social psychology of intergroup relations. New York: Academic Press.
Tajfel, H., & Turner, J. (1986). The social identity theory of intergroup behavior. In S. Worchel & W. G. Austin (Eds.), The social psychology of intergroup relations (pp. 7–24). Chicago: Nelson-Hall.
Turner, J. C., & Haslam, S. A. (2001). Social identity, organizations and leadership. In M. Turner (Ed.), Groups at work: Theory and research (pp. 25–65). London: Erlbaum.
Tziner, A. (1985). How team composition affects task performance: Some theoretical insights. Psychological Reports, 57, 1111–1119.
Van Knippenberg, D., & Schippers, M. C. (2007). Work group diversity. Annual Review of Psychology, 58, 515–541.
van Woerkom, M., & van Engen, M. L. (2009). Learning from conflicts? The relations between task relationship conflicts, team learning and team performance. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 18, 381–404.
Vodosek, M. (2007). Intragroup conflict as a mediator between cultural diversity and work group outcomes. International Journal of Conflict Management, 18, 345–375.
Webber, S. S., & Donahue, L. M. (2001). Impact of highly and less job-related diversity on work group cohesion and performance: A meta-analysis. Journal of Management, 27, 141–162.
Zaccaro, (1991). Nonequivalent associations between forms of cohesiveness and group-related outcomes: Evidence for multidimensionality. Journal of Social Psychology, 131(3), 387–399.
The participation of the second author in this project was supported by the Asociación Mexicana de Cultura A.C.
See Table 4.
About this article
Cite this article
Woehr, D.J., Arciniega, L.M. & Poling, T.L. Exploring the Effects of Value Diversity on Team Effectiveness. J Bus Psychol 28, 107–121 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10869-012-9267-4