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When Does 360-Degree Feedback Create Behavior Change? And How Would We Know It When It Does?

Abstract

360-degree feedback has great promise as a method for creating both behavior change and organization change, yet research demonstrating results to this effect has been mixed. The mixed results are, at least in part, because of the high degree of variation in design features across 360 processes. We identify four characteristics of a 360 process that are required to successfully create organization change, (1) relevant content, (2) credible data, (3) accountability, and (4) census participation, and cite the important research issues in each of those areas relative to design decisions. In addition, when behavior change is created, the data must be sufficiently reliable to detect it, and we highlight current and needed research in the measurement domain, using response scale research as a prime example.

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Notes

  1. 1.

    The authors have had frequent interaction with Allan Church on this topic over the years, and note that his views and practices have evolved to be more supportive of the use of 360-degree feedback for decision-making purposes.

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Correspondence to David W. Bracken.

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Bracken, D.W., Rose, D.S. When Does 360-Degree Feedback Create Behavior Change? And How Would We Know It When It Does?. J Bus Psychol 26, 183 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10869-011-9218-5

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Keywords

  • 360-Degree feedback
  • Behavior change
  • Organization change
  • Multisource feedback
  • Human resource systems