A Meta-Analytic Review of the Consequences Associated with Work–Family Enrichment

Abstract

Purpose

This study investigated the relationship between work-to-family enrichment (WFE) and family-to-work enrichment (FWE) with work-related, non work-related, and health-related consequences using meta-analysis.

Design/methodology/approach

We conducted a meta-analytic review of 21 studies (54 correlations) for WFE and 25 studies (57 correlations) for FWE.

Findings

We found that both WFE and FWE were positively related to job satisfaction, affective commitment, and family satisfaction but not turnover intentions. WFE was more strongly related to work-related variables, whereas FWE was more strongly related to non work-related variables. We also found that both WFE and FWE were positively related to physical and mental health. Additionally, relationships appear to depend on moderating variables including the proportion of women in the sample as well as the construct label (e.g., enrichment, facilitation, positive spillover).

Implications

Our work indicates that organizations need to consider ways to not only reduce conflict, but also increase enrichment, which will drive many important outcome variables.

Originality/value

This is the first meta-analysis on the positive side of the work–family interface.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

References marked with an asterisk (*) indicate studies included in the meta-analysis.

  1. Allen, T. D., Herst, D. E. L., Bruck, C. S., & Sutton, M. (2000). Consequences associated with work-to-family conflict: A review and agenda for future research. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 5, 278–308.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  2. *Allis, P., & O’Driscoll, M. (2008). Positive effects of nonwork-to-work facilitation on well being in work, family and personal domains. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 23(3), 273–291.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Andrews, A., & Bailyn, L. (1993). Segmentation and synergy: Two models linking work and family. In J. C. Hood (Ed.), Men, work, and family (pp. 262–275). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

    Google Scholar 

  4. *Aryee, S., Srinivas, E. S., & Tan, H. H. (2005). Rhythms of life: Antecedents and outcomes of work-family balance in employed parents. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90, 132–146.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  5. *Balmforth, K., & Gardner, D. (2006). Conflict and facilitation between work and family: Realizing the outcomes for organizations. New Zealand Journal of Psychology, 35(2), 69–76.

    Google Scholar 

  6. Barnett, R. C., & Hyde, J. S. (2001). Women, men, work, and family. American Psychologist, 56, 781–796.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  7. Blau, P. (1964). Exchange and power in social life. New York: Wiley.

    Google Scholar 

  8. Bond, J. T., Thompson, C. A., Galinsky, E., & Prottas, D. (2002). Highlights of the national study of the changing workforce. New York: Families and Work Institute.

    Google Scholar 

  9. *Boyar, S. L., & Mosley, D. C. (2007). The relationship between core self-evaluations and work and family satisfaction: The mediating role of work–family conflict and facilitation. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 71, 265–281.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Byron, K. (2005). A meta-analytic review of work-family interference and its antecedents. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 67, 169–198.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. *Cardenas, R. A., & Major, D. A. (2008, April). An inclusive environment’s impact on the work-family interface. In D. A. Major (Chair), Exploring linkages between diversity and work-family research. Symposium conducted at the 23rd Annual Conference of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, San Francisco, CA.

  12. Carlson, D. S., Kacmar, K. M., Wayne, J. H., & Grzywacz, J. G. (2006). Measuring the positive side of the work-family interface: Development and validation of a work-family enrichment scale. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 68, 131–164.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Casper, W. J., Eby, L. T., Bordeaux, C., Lockwood, A., & Lambert, D. (2007). A review of research methods in IO/OB work-family research. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92, 28–43.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  14. Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

    Google Scholar 

  15. *Cohen, A., & Kirchmeyer, C. (1995). A multidimensional approach to the relation between organizational commitment and nonwork participation. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 46, 189–202.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. *Dyson-Washington, F. (2006). The relationship between optimism and work-family enrichment and their influence on psychological well-being. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA.

  17. Eagly, A. H. (1987). Sex differences in social behavior: A social-role interpretation. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

    Google Scholar 

  18. Eby, L. T., Casper, W. J., Lockwood, A., Bordeaux, C., & Brinley, A. (2005). Work and family research in IO/OB: Content analysis and review of the literature (1980–2002). Journal of Vocational Behavior, 66, 124–197.

    Google Scholar 

  19. Ford, M. T., Heinen, B. A., & Langkamer, K. L. (2007). Work and family satisfaction and conflict: A meta-analysis of cross-domain relations. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92, 57–80.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  20. Friedman, S. D., & Greenhaus, J. H. (2000). Work and family: Allies or enemies? What happens when business professionals confront life choices. New York: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  21. Frone, M. R. (2003). Work-family balance. In J. C. Quick & L. E. Tetrick (Eds.), Handbook of occupational health psychology (pp. 143–162). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

    Google Scholar 

  22. Frone, M. R., Russell, M., & Cooper, M. L. (1992). Antecedents and outcomes of work–family conflict: Testing a model of the work–family interface. Journal of Applied Psychology, 77, 65–78.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  23. Frone, M. R., Yardley, J. K., & Markel, K. S. (1997). Developing and testing an integrative model of the work-family interface. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 50, 145–167.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. *Gordon, J. R., Whelan-Berry, K. S., & Hamilton, E. A. (2007). The relationship among work–family conflict and enhancement, organizational work–family culture, and work outcomes for older working women. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 12, 350–364.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  25. Greenhaus, J. H., & Parasuraman, S. (1999). Handbook of gender and work. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.

    Google Scholar 

  26. Greenhaus, J. H., & Powell, G. N. (2006). When work and family are allies: A theory of work-family enrichment. Academy of Management Review, 31, 72–92.

    Google Scholar 

  27. *Grzywacz, J. G., & Bass, B. L. (2003). Work, family, and mental health: Testing different models of work-family fit. Journal of Marriage and Family, 65, 248–262.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Grzywacz, J. G., & Butler, A. B. (2005). The impact of job characteristics on work-family facilitation: Testing a theory and distinguishing a construct. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 10, 97–109.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  29. Grzywacz, J. G., & Marks, N. F. (2000). Reconceptualizing the work-family interface: An ecological perspective on the correlates of positive and negative spillover between work and family. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 5, 111–126.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  30. *Hammer, L. B., Cullen, J. C., Neal, M. B., Sinclair, R. R., & Shafiro, M. V. (2005). The longitudinal effects of work–family conflict and positive spillover on depressive symptoms among dual-earner couples. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 10, 138–154.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  31. Hammer, L. B., & Hanson, G. (2006). Work-family enrichment. In J. H. Greenhaus & G. A. Callanan (Eds.), Encyclopedia of career development (Vol. 2, pp. 869–871). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

    Google Scholar 

  32. Hanson, G. C., Hammer, L. B., & Colton, C. L. (2004). Development and validation of a multidimensional scale of work-family positive spillover. Paper presented at the Academy of Management Annual Meeting, New Orleans, LA.

  33. *Hanson, G. C., Hammer, L. B., & Colton, C. L. (2006). Development and validation of a multidimensional scale of perceived work–family positive spillover. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 11, 249–265.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  34. *Hennessey, K. D. (2007). Work-family balance: An exploration of conflict and enrichment for women in a traditional occupation. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park, MD.

  35. Hobfoll, S. E. (2002). Social and psychological resources and adaptation. Review of General Psychology, 6, 307–324.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. *Holbrook, S. (2005). Development and initial validation of the work-family facilitation scale. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL.

  37. Hunter, J. E., & Schmidt, F. L. (2004). Methods of meta-analysis (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publishers.

    Google Scholar 

  38. Judge, T. A., Boudreau, J. W., & Bretz, R. D. (1994). Job and life attitudes of male executives. Journal of Applied Psychology, 79, 767–782.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  39. Kelly, E. L., Kossek, E. E., Hammer, L. B., Durhan, M., Bray, J., & Chermack, K. (2008). Getting there from here: Research on the effects of work-family initiatives on work-family conflict and business outcomes. The Academy of Management Annals, 2, 305–349.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  40. *Kinnunen, U., Feldt, T., Geurts, S., & Pulkkinen, L. (2006). Types of work-family interface: Well-being correlates of negative and positive spillover between work and family. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 47, 149–162.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  41. *Kirchmeyer, C. (1992a). Nonwork participation and work attitudes: A test of scarcity vs. expansion models of personal resource. Human Relations, 45(8), 775–795.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  42. *Kirchmeyer, C. (1992b). Perceptions of nonwork-to-work spillover: Challenging the common view of conflict-ridden domain relationships. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 13, 231–249.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  43. *Kirchmeyer, C. (1993). Nonwork-to-work spillover: A more balanced view of the experiences and coping of professional women and men. Gender Roles, 28(9/10), 531–552.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  44. *Kirchmeyer, C. (1995). Managing the work-nonwork boundary: An assessment of organizational responses. Human Relations, 48, 515–536.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  45. Kossek, E. E., & Ozeki, C. (1998). Work-family interference, policies, and the job-life satisfaction relationship: A review and directions for organizational behavior-human resources research. Journal of Applied Psychology, 83, 139–149.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  46. Locke, E. (2003). Good definitions: The epistemological foundation of scientific progress. In J. Greenberg (Ed.), Organizational behavior the state of science (pp. 415–445). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

    Google Scholar 

  47. *Lee, E. S., Chang, J. Y., & Kim, H. (2008, August). The sunny side of the work-family interface in Korea: Can family life facilitate work life? Paper presented at the Academy of Management Meeting, Anaheim, CA.

  48. *Luk, M. D., Winkel, D. E., & Shaffer, M. (2008, August). The effect of workplace conflict and facilitation on well-being: Do individual differences matter? Paper presented at the Academy of Management Meeting, Anaheim, CA.

  49. Marks, S. R. (1977). Multiple roles and role strain some notes on human energy time and commitment. American Sociological Review, 2, 921–936.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  50. *McCarthy, N. B. (1999). Relations between work-family interface modes and patterns of coping behavior. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA.

  51. McNall, L. A., Masuda, A. D., & Nicklin, J. M. (in press). Flexible work arrangements with job satisfaction and turnover intentions: The mediating role of work-to-family enrichment. Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary & Applied.

  52. Mesmer-Magnus, J. R., & Viswesvaran, C. (2005). Convergence between measures of work-to-family and family-to-work conflict: A meta-analytic examination. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 67, 215–232.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  53. Nicklin, J. M., Mayfield, C. O., Caputo, P. M., Arboleda, M. A., Cosentino, R. E., Lee, M., et al. (in press). Does telecommuting increase organizational attitudes and outcomes: A meta-analysis. CMRD Journal of Management Research.

  54. Parasuraman, S., & Greenhaus, J. H. (2002). Toward reducing some critical gaps in work-family research. Human Resource Management Review, 12, 299–312.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  55. Pleck, J. H. (1977). The work-family role system. Social Problems, 24, 417–442.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  56. *Polk, D. M. (2003). Relational identity, social support, and marital satisfaction: A framework using equity and spillover. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Kent State University, Kent, OH.

  57. Rhoades, L., & Eisenberger, R. (2002). Perceived organizational support: A review of the literature. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87, 698–714.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  58. Schmidt, F. L., & Le, H. (2004). Software for the Hunter-Schmidt meta-analysis methods. Iowa City, IA: University of Iowa, Department of Management & Organization.

    Google Scholar 

  59. Sieber, S. D. (1974). Toward a theory of role accumulation. American Sociological Review, 39, 567–578.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  60. Society for Human Resource Management. (2003, December). HR professionals see more employees struggle with eldercare. http://www.businessknowhow.com/manage/eldercare.htm. Retrieved on 19 Feb 2009.

  61. *Stephens, M. P., Franks, M. M., & Atienza, A. A. (1997). Where two roles intersect: Spillover between parent care and employment. Psychology and Aging, 12(1), 30–37.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  62. Sumer, H. C., & Knight, P. A. (2001). How do people with different attachment styles balance work and family? A personality perspective on work-family linkage. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86, 653–663.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  63. *Swoody, C. A. (2008). The role of work eustress in work-family positive spillover. Paper presented at the annual conference of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, New York, NY.

  64. Thomas, L. T., & Ganster, D. C. (1995). Impact of family-supportive work variables on work-family conflict and strain: A control perspective. Journal of Applied Psychology, 80, 6–15.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  65. *van Steenbergen, E. F., Ellemers, N., & Mooijaart, A. (2007). How work and family can facilitate each other: Distinct types of work-family facilitation and outcomes for women and men. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 12, 279–300.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  66. Voydanoff, P. (2004). The effects of work demands and resources on work-to-family conflict and facilitation. Journal of Marriage and Family, 66, 398–412.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  67. *Voydanoff, P. (2005). Social integration, work-family conflict and facilitation, and job and marital quality. Journal of Marriage and Family, 67, 666–679.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  68. Wayne, J. H. (2009). Reducing conceptual confusion: Clarifying the positive side of work and family. In D. R. Crane & J. Hill (Eds.), Handbook of families and work: Interdisciplinary perspectives (pp. 105–140). Lanham, MD: University Press of America.

    Google Scholar 

  69. *Wayne, J. H., Musisca, N., & Fleeson, W. (2004). Considering the role of personality in the work-family experience: Relationships of the big five to work-family conflict and facilitation. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 64, 108–130.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  70. *Wayne, J. H., Randel, A. E., & Stevens, J. (2006). The role of identity and work–family support in work–family enrichment and its work-related consequences. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 69, 445–461.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  71. *Williams, A., Franche, R. L., Ibrahim, S., Mustard, C. A., & Layton, F. R. (2006). Examining the relationship between work–family spillover and sleep quality. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 11, 27–37.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgment

We thank Vipanchi Mishra and Andrew D’Agostino for their assistance with coding and Sylvia Roch for her helpful comments.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Laurel A. McNall.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

McNall, L.A., Nicklin, J.M. & Masuda, A.D. A Meta-Analytic Review of the Consequences Associated with Work–Family Enrichment. J Bus Psychol 25, 381–396 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10869-009-9141-1

Download citation

Keywords

  • Work–family balance
  • Work–family enrichment
  • Work–family facilitation
  • Positive spillover
  • Work–family enhancement