A Meta-Analytic Review of the Consequences Associated with Work–Family Enrichment
This study investigated the relationship between work-to-family enrichment (WFE) and family-to-work enrichment (FWE) with work-related, non work-related, and health-related consequences using meta-analysis.
We conducted a meta-analytic review of 21 studies (54 correlations) for WFE and 25 studies (57 correlations) for FWE.
We found that both WFE and FWE were positively related to job satisfaction, affective commitment, and family satisfaction but not turnover intentions. WFE was more strongly related to work-related variables, whereas FWE was more strongly related to non work-related variables. We also found that both WFE and FWE were positively related to physical and mental health. Additionally, relationships appear to depend on moderating variables including the proportion of women in the sample as well as the construct label (e.g., enrichment, facilitation, positive spillover).
Our work indicates that organizations need to consider ways to not only reduce conflict, but also increase enrichment, which will drive many important outcome variables.
This is the first meta-analysis on the positive side of the work–family interface.
KeywordsWork–family balance Work–family enrichment Work–family facilitation Positive spillover Work–family enhancement
References marked with an asterisk (*) indicate studies included in the meta-analysis.
- Andrews, A., & Bailyn, L. (1993). Segmentation and synergy: Two models linking work and family. In J. C. Hood (Ed.), Men, work, and family (pp. 262–275). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
- *Balmforth, K., & Gardner, D. (2006). Conflict and facilitation between work and family: Realizing the outcomes for organizations. New Zealand Journal of Psychology, 35(2), 69–76.Google Scholar
- Blau, P. (1964). Exchange and power in social life. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
- Bond, J. T., Thompson, C. A., Galinsky, E., & Prottas, D. (2002). Highlights of the national study of the changing workforce. New York: Families and Work Institute.Google Scholar
- *Cardenas, R. A., & Major, D. A. (2008, April). An inclusive environment’s impact on the work-family interface. In D. A. Major (Chair), Exploring linkages between diversity and work-family research. Symposium conducted at the 23rd Annual Conference of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, San Francisco, CA.Google Scholar
- Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
- *Dyson-Washington, F. (2006). The relationship between optimism and work-family enrichment and their influence on psychological well-being. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA.Google Scholar
- Eagly, A. H. (1987). Sex differences in social behavior: A social-role interpretation. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
- Eby, L. T., Casper, W. J., Lockwood, A., Bordeaux, C., & Brinley, A. (2005). Work and family research in IO/OB: Content analysis and review of the literature (1980–2002). Journal of Vocational Behavior, 66, 124–197.Google Scholar
- Friedman, S. D., & Greenhaus, J. H. (2000). Work and family: Allies or enemies? What happens when business professionals confront life choices. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Greenhaus, J. H., & Parasuraman, S. (1999). Handbook of gender and work. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.Google Scholar
- Greenhaus, J. H., & Powell, G. N. (2006). When work and family are allies: A theory of work-family enrichment. Academy of Management Review, 31, 72–92.Google Scholar
- Hammer, L. B., & Hanson, G. (2006). Work-family enrichment. In J. H. Greenhaus & G. A. Callanan (Eds.), Encyclopedia of career development (Vol. 2, pp. 869–871). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
- Hanson, G. C., Hammer, L. B., & Colton, C. L. (2004). Development and validation of a multidimensional scale of work-family positive spillover. Paper presented at the Academy of Management Annual Meeting, New Orleans, LA.Google Scholar
- *Hennessey, K. D. (2007). Work-family balance: An exploration of conflict and enrichment for women in a traditional occupation. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park, MD.Google Scholar
- *Holbrook, S. (2005). Development and initial validation of the work-family facilitation scale. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL.Google Scholar
- Hunter, J. E., & Schmidt, F. L. (2004). Methods of meta-analysis (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publishers.Google Scholar
- Locke, E. (2003). Good definitions: The epistemological foundation of scientific progress. In J. Greenberg (Ed.), Organizational behavior the state of science (pp. 415–445). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
- *Lee, E. S., Chang, J. Y., & Kim, H. (2008, August). The sunny side of the work-family interface in Korea: Can family life facilitate work life? Paper presented at the Academy of Management Meeting, Anaheim, CA.Google Scholar
- *Luk, M. D., Winkel, D. E., & Shaffer, M. (2008, August). The effect of workplace conflict and facilitation on well-being: Do individual differences matter? Paper presented at the Academy of Management Meeting, Anaheim, CA.Google Scholar
- *McCarthy, N. B. (1999). Relations between work-family interface modes and patterns of coping behavior. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA.Google Scholar
- McNall, L. A., Masuda, A. D., & Nicklin, J. M. (in press). Flexible work arrangements with job satisfaction and turnover intentions: The mediating role of work-to-family enrichment. Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary & Applied. Google Scholar
- Nicklin, J. M., Mayfield, C. O., Caputo, P. M., Arboleda, M. A., Cosentino, R. E., Lee, M., et al. (in press). Does telecommuting increase organizational attitudes and outcomes: A meta-analysis. CMRD Journal of Management Research. Google Scholar
- *Polk, D. M. (2003). Relational identity, social support, and marital satisfaction: A framework using equity and spillover. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Kent State University, Kent, OH.Google Scholar
- Schmidt, F. L., & Le, H. (2004). Software for the Hunter-Schmidt meta-analysis methods. Iowa City, IA: University of Iowa, Department of Management & Organization.Google Scholar
- Society for Human Resource Management. (2003, December). HR professionals see more employees struggle with eldercare. http://www.businessknowhow.com/manage/eldercare.htm. Retrieved on 19 Feb 2009.
- *Swoody, C. A. (2008). The role of work eustress in work-family positive spillover. Paper presented at the annual conference of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, New York, NY.Google Scholar
- Wayne, J. H. (2009). Reducing conceptual confusion: Clarifying the positive side of work and family. In D. R. Crane & J. Hill (Eds.), Handbook of families and work: Interdisciplinary perspectives (pp. 105–140). Lanham, MD: University Press of America.Google Scholar