Advertisement

Journal of Business and Psychology

, Volume 20, Issue 1, pp 31–51 | Cite as

Combining Employment and Breastfeeding: Utilizing a Work-Family Conflict Framework to Understand Obstacles and Solutions

  • Rebekah A. Cardenas
  • Debra A. Major
Article

Abstract

Although authorities advocate breastfeeding as the ideal form of infant nutrition, breastfeeding rates remain low among employed mothers in the United States. Utilizing a work-family conflict framework, specific time-based, strain-based, and behavior-based conflicts that can occur for women combining breastfeeding and employment are explored. Research indicates that these conflicts often lead to decreased breastfeeding durations, which result in costs for employers, mothers, and infants. The review links workplace interventions (e.g. prenatal education, lactation programs, support systems, job flexibility, and child care) to the types of conflict (e.g. time, behavior, and strain-based) that each intervention can reduce.

Keywords

work-family conflict family-friendly interventions breastfeeding 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. American Academy of Pediatrics, Work Group on Breastfeeding1997Policy statement: Breastfeeding and the use of human milk (RE9729)Pediatrics10010351039Google Scholar
  2. Ball, T., Wright, A. 1999Health care costs of formula-feeding in the first year of lifePediatrics103870885PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Bar-Yam, N. 1997Nursing mothers at work: An analysis of corporate and maternal strategies to support lactation in the workplaceBrandeis UniversityWaltham, MAUnpublished doctoral dissertationGoogle Scholar
  4. Bjerklie, D. 2002, July 29Got milk?Time16063Google Scholar
  5. Brady, D. 2001, AugustGive nursing moms a break at the officeBusiness Week374470Google Scholar
  6. Breastfeeding and the working mom2001, JuneThe carenotes systemMicromedex, IncEnglewood, COGoogle Scholar
  7. Cardenas, R. A. 2002Breastfeeding and the supportive workplace: Integration of women’s productive and reproductive livesOld Dominion UniversityNorfolk, VAUnpublished master’s thesisGoogle Scholar
  8. Chen, D. C., Nommsen-Rivers, L., Dewey, K. G., Lonnerdal, B. 1998Stress and early lactation performanceAmerican Journal of Clinical Nutrition63335344Google Scholar
  9. Chezem, J., Friesen, C. 1999Attendance at breastfeeding support meetings: Relationship to demographic characteristics and duration of lactation in women planning postpartum employmentJournal of the American Dietetic Association998386CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. CIGNA Corporation. (2000, June 15). UCLA study of CIGNA corporate lactation program proves that helping working moms breastfeed is good business [Press Release]. P. R. Newswire Association, IncGoogle Scholar
  11. Cohen, R., Mrtek, M. B., Mrtek, R. G. 1995Comparison of maternal absenteeism and infant illness rates among breastfeeding and formula-feeding women in two corporationsAmerican Journal of Health Promotion19148153Google Scholar
  12. Duberstein Lindberg, L. 1996Women’s decisions about breastfeeding and maternal employmentJournal of Marriage & the Family58239251Google Scholar
  13. Duckett, L., Henly, S., Avery, M., Potter, S., Hills-Bonczyk, S., Hulden, R., Savik, K. 1998A theory of planned behavior-based structural model for breastfeedingNursing Research47325336CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Faught, L. (1994). Lactation programs benefit the family and the corporation. Journal of Compensation and Benefits, 44–47 September–October.Google Scholar
  15. Fein, S. B., Roe, B. 1998The effect of work status on initiation and duration of breastfeedingAmerican Journal of Public Health8810421049PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Freed, G. 1993Breastfeeding: Time to teach what we preachJAMA, The Journal of the American Medical Association269243246Google Scholar
  17. Gates, D. M., O’Neill, N. J. 1990Promoting maternal-child wellness in the workplaceAAOHN Journal38258263PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Geilen, A. C., Faden, R. R., O’Campo, P., Brown, H., Paige, D. 1991Maternal employment during the early postpartum period: Effects on initiation and continuation of breastfeedingPediatrics87298306PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Gengler, C. E., Mulvey, M. S., Oglethorpe, J. E. 1999A means-end analysis of mother’s infant feeding choicesJournal of Public Policy & Marketing18172188Google Scholar
  20. Glass, J., Estes, S. 1997The family responsive workplaceAnnual Review of Sociology23289314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Glass, J., Riley, L. 1998Family responsive policies and employee retention following childbirthSocial Forces7614011436Google Scholar
  22. Greenhaus, J. H., Beutell, N. J. 1985Sources of conflict between work and family rolesAcademy of Management Review107688Google Scholar
  23. Grover, S. L., Crooker, K. J. 1995Who appreciates family-responsive human resource policies: The impact of family-friendly policies on the organizational attachment of parents and non-parentsPersonnel Psychology48271288Google Scholar
  24. Hills-Bonczyk, S. G., Avery, M. D., Savik, K., Potter, S., Duckett, L. J. 1993Women’s experiences with combining breastfeeding and employmentJournal of Nurse-Midwifery38257266CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Holtzman, M., Glass, J. 1999Explaining changes in mother’s job satisfaction following childbirthWork and Occupations26365404Google Scholar
  26. Jones, E. G., Matheny, R. J. 1993Relationship between infant feeding and exclusion rate from child care because of illnessJournal of the American Dietetic Association93809811CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Katcher, A. L., Lanese, M.G. 1985Breastfeeding by employed mothers: A reasonable accommodation in the work placePediatrics75644647PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Kearney, M. H., Cronenwett, L. 1991Breastfeeding and employmentJournal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing20471480Google Scholar
  29. Klerman, J. A., Leibowitz, A. 1994The work-employment distinction among new mothers (Women’s work, wages and well-being: Women’s employment behavior)Journal of Human Resources29277254Google Scholar
  30. Kossek, E. E., Nichol, V. 1992The effects of on-site child care on employee attitudes and performancePersonnel Psychology45485509Google Scholar
  31. Kossek, E. E., Ozeki, C. 1998Work-family conflict, policies, and the job-life satisfaction relationship: A review and directions for organizational behavior-human resource researchJournal of Applied Psychology83139149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Lisser, E. D. (1999, August 31). For working moms, nursing is something to keep in the closet—It turns squeamish colleagues into unfunny humorists: A pumping-room sorority. Wall Street Journal, p. A1Google Scholar
  33. LoJacono, S. A. 2000Mildly ill/backup child care: A benefit for employees and employersEmployee Benefits Journal254851PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Major, D. A., Cardenas, R. A., Allard, C. B. 2004Child health: A legitimate business concernJournal of Occupational Health Psychology9306321CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Martinez, M. N. 1997, JuneWork-life programs reap business benefitsHR Magazine42110114Google Scholar
  36. Mezzacappa, E. S., Guethlien, W., Vaz, N., Bagiella, E. 2000A preliminary study of breastfeeding and maternal symptomatologyAnals of Behavioral Medicine227179Google Scholar
  37. Mezzacappa, E. S., Katkin, E. S. 2002Breastfeeding is associated with reduced perceived stress and negative mood in mothersHealth Psychology21187193CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Miller, N., Miller, D., Chism, M. 1996Breastfeeding practices among resident physiciansPediatrics98434438PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Moore, J. F., Jansa, N. 1987A survey of policies and practices in support of breastfeeding mothers in the workplaceBirth14191195PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Morse, J., Bottorff, J. 1989Intending to breastfeed and workJournal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing18493500Google Scholar
  41. Murtaugh, M. 1997Optimal breastfeeding durationJournal of the American Dietetic Association9712521255CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Prince, M. 2002More employers are offering lactation rooms for new momsBusiness Insurance3668Google Scholar
  43. Roe, B., Whittington, L., Fein, S. B., Teisl, M. F. 1999Is there competition between breastfeeding and maternal employment?Demography36157171PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Rothausen, T. J., Gonzalez, J. A., Clarke, N. E., O’Dell, L. L. 1998Family-friendly backlash-fact or fiction? The case of organizations’ on-site child care centersPersonnel Psychology51685706Google Scholar
  45. Ryan, A. S., Wenjun, Z., Acosta, A. 2002Breastfeeding continues to increase into the new millenniumPediatrics11011031109CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Scariati, P. D., Grummer-Strawn, L. M., Fein, S. B. 1997, JuneA longitudinal analysis of infant morbidity and the extent of breastfeeding in the united states [Electronic Version]Pediatrics995Google Scholar
  47. Seijts, G. H. 2002Milking the organization? The effect of breastfeeding accommodation on perceived fairness and organizational attractivenessJournal of Business Ethics40113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Shalowitz, D. 1993Lactation program speeds mothers’ return to workBusiness Insurance2721Google Scholar
  49. Thompson, C. A., Beauvais, L L., Lyness, K. S. 1999When work-family benefits are not enough: The influence of work-family culture on benefit utilization, organizational attachment, and work-family conflictJournal of Vocational Behavior54392415CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Tyler, K. 1999Got milk?HR Magazine446873Google Scholar
  51. United States Department of Health and Human Services 2000Breastfeeding: HHS blueprint for action on breastfeedingDepartment of Health and Human Services, Office on Women’s HealthWashington, D.C.Google Scholar
  52. Visness, C., Kennedy, K. 1997Maternal employment and breastfeeding: Findings from the 1988 national maternal and infant health surveyAmerican Journal of Public Health87945950PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Volling, B., Belsky, J. 1993Maternal employment: Parent, infant, and contextual characteristics related to maternal employment decisions in the first year of infancyFamily Relations42412Google Scholar
  54. Walker, C. K. 1991Healthy babies for healthy companiesBusiness & Health92930Google Scholar
  55. Wallis, C. (2004, March 22). The case for staying home. Time, 51–59Google Scholar
  56. Williams, S. P. 2001, February 26The breast is bestNewsweek13773Google Scholar
  57. World Health Organization. (1996, August 6). Breastfeeding: A community responsibility. [Electronic press release]. Available at http://www.who.int/research/enGoogle Scholar
  58. Yimyam, S., Morrow, M., Srisuphan, W. 1999Role conflict and rapid socio-economic change: Breastfeeding among employed women in ThailandSocial Science & Medicine49957965Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyOld Dominion UniversityNorfolkUSA

Personalised recommendations