Intentional and unintentional firearm injury is the second leading cause of death for youth, underscoring the need for effective primary prevention approaches that focus on increasing safe storage by caregivers and decreasing handling/carriage among youth. This article describes the state of the science for prevention of firearm injuries among children and adolescents. We applied PRISMA guidelines to present results from a scoping review using PubMed, Scopus, CINAHL, and CJ Abstracts for original research articles published between January 1, 1985 and March 1, 2018 in the U.S. focusing on primary screening or interventions for primary prevention of pediatric firearm injuries. In total, 46 articles met inclusion criteria: safe storage (23), screening (2), firearm handling/carriage/use (21). Across school, healthcare, and community settings, few evidenced-based programs exist, and data on firearm safety technologies are lacking. Programs have generally not employed rigorous designs, and/or assessed behavioral (e.g., carriage) or injury-related firearm outcomes. Evidenced-based prevention programs are needed to mitigate firearm morbidity and mortality among youth.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Albright, T. L., & Burge, S. K. (2003). Improving firearm storage habits: Impact of brief office counseling by family physicians. The Journal of the American Board of Family Practice, 16, 40–46.
American Academy of Pediatrics. (2016). Survey: Gun violence prevention a big issue for most pediatricians. Retrieved from http://www.aappublications.org/news/2016/08/10/GunViolence081016. Accessed 9 Nov 2018.
Arksey, H., & O’Malley, L. (2005). Scoping studies: Towards a methodological framework. International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 8, 19–32.
Barkin, S. L., Finch, S. A., Ip, E. H., Scheindlin, B., Craig, J. A., Steffes, J., et al. (2008). Is office-based counseling about media use, timeouts, and firearm storage effective? Results from a cluster-randomized, controlled trial. Pediatrics, 122, e15–e25.
Baum, F., MacDougall, C., & Smith, D. (2006). Participatory action research. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 60, 854–857.
Beidas, R. S., Jager-Hyman, S., Becker-Haimes, E. M., Wolk, C. B., Ahmedani, B. K., Zeber, J. E., et al. (2018). Acceptability and use of evidence-based practices for firearm storage in pediatric primary care. Academic Pediatrics. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.acap.2018.11.007.
Blueprints for Healthy Youth Development. (2018). Blueprints for Healthy Youth Development. Retrieved from https://www.blueprintsprograms.org/. Accessed 9 Nov 2018.
Branas, C. C., Cheney, R. A., MacDonald, J. M., Tam, V. W., Jackson, T. D., & Ten Have, T. R. (2011). A difference-in-differences analysis of health, safety, and greening vacant urban space. American Journal of Epidemiology, 174, 1296–1306.
Caldwell, C. H., Rafferty, J., Reischl, T. M., De Loney, E. H., & Brooks, C. L. (2010). Enhancing parenting skills among nonresident African American fathers as a strategy for preventing youth risky behaviors. American Journal of Community Psychology, 45, 17–35. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10464-009-9290-4
Callahan, C. M., Rivara, F. P., & Koepsell, T. D. (1994). Money for guns: Evaluation of the Seattle gun buy-back program. Public Health Reports, 109, 472.
Carbone, P. S., Clemens, C. J., & Ball, T. M. (2005). Effectiveness of gun-safety counseling and a gun lock giveaway in a hispanic community. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 159, 1049–1054. https://doi.org/10.1001/archpedi.159.11.1049
Carter, P. M., Walton, M. A., Zimmerman, M. A., Chermack, S. T., Roche, J. S., & Cunningham, R. M. (2016). Efficacy of a universal brief intervention for violence among urban emergency department youth. Academic Emergency Medicine, 23, 1061–1070. https://doi.org/10.1111/acem.13021
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2015). The social-ecological model: A framework for prevention. Atlanta, GA: CDC. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/overview/social-ecologicalmodel.html. Accessed 2 Nov 2018.
Center for Disease Control and Prevention. (2018). Youth violence. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/youthviolence/index.html. Accessed 2 Nov 2018.
Chang, D. C., Cornwell, E. E., III, Sutton, E. R., Yonas, M. A., & Allen, F. (2005). A multidisciplinary youth violence-prevention initiative: Impact on attitudes. Journal of the American College of Surgeons, 201, 721–723.
Cornell, M. A., & Khasawneh, M. T. (2008). An ergonomic comparison of firearm safety mechanisms. Ergonomics, 51, 1394–1406.
Coyne-Beasley, T., Schoenbach, V. J., & Johnson, R. M. (2001). Love our kids, lock your guns: A community-based firearm safety counseling and gun lock distribution program. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 155, 659–664.
Crossen, E. J., Lewis, B., & Hoffman, B. D. (2015). Preventing gun injuries in children. Pediatrics in Review, 36(2), 43–50.
Cunningham, R. M., Chermack, S. T., Zimmerman, M. A., Shope, J. T., Bingham, C. R., Blow, F. C., et al. (2012). Brief motivational interviewing intervention for peer violence and alcohol use in teens: One-year follow-up. Pediatrics, 129, 1083–1090. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2011-3419
Cunningham, R. M., Walton, M. A., & Carter, P. M. (2018). The major causes of death in children and adolescents in the United States. New England Journal of Medicine, 379, 2468–2475.
Curran, G. M., Bauer, M., Mittman, B., Pyne, J. M., & Stetler, C. (2012). Effectiveness-implementation hybrid designs: Combining elements of clinical effectiveness and implementation research to enhance public health impact. Medical Care, 50, 217.
Davidson, L. L., Durkin, M. S., Kuhn, L., O’Connor, P., Barlow, B., & Heagarty, M. C. (1994). The impact of the Safe Kids/Healthy Neighborhoods Injury Prevention Program in Harlem, 1988 through 1991. American Journal of Public Health, 84, 580–586.
Dingeldein, L., Sheehan, K., Krcmarik, M., & Dowd, M. D. (2012). Evaluation of a firearm injury prevention web-based curriculum. Teaching and Learning in Medicine, 24, 327–333.
Dowd, M. D. (1999). Childhood injury prevention at home and play. Current Opinion in Pediatrics, 11, 578–582.
Duncan, T. K., Waxman, K., Romero, J., & Diaz, G. (2014). Operation PeaceWorks: A community program with the participation of a Level II trauma center to decrease gang-related violence. Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery, 76, 1208–1213.
DuRant, R. H., Barkin, S., & Krowchuk, D. P. (2001). Evaluation of a peaceful conflict resolution and violence prevention curriculum for sixth-grade students. Journal of Adolescent Health, 28, 386–393.
Emde, K. (2002). Cops & docs: A gun violence injury prevention program. International Journal of Trauma Nursing, 8, 54–56.
Fein, J. A., & Mollen, C. J. (1999). Interpersonal violence. Current Opinion in Pediatrics, 11, 588–593.
Fowler, K. A., Dahlberg, L. L., Haileyesus, T., Gutierrez, C., & Bacon, S. (2017). Childhood firearm injuries in the United States. Pediatrics, e20163486.
Garvin, E. C., Cannuscio, C. C., & Branas, C. C. (2013). Greening vacant lots to reduce violent crime: A randomised controlled trial. Injury Prevention, 19, 198–203.
Gatheridge, B. J., Miltenberger, R. G., Huneke, D. F., Satterlund, M. J., Mattern, A. R., Johnson, B. M., et al. (2004). Comparison of two programs to teach firearm injury prevention skills to 6-and 7-year-old children. Pediatrics, 114, e294–e299.
Goldberg, A. J., Toto, J. M., Kulp, H. R., Lloyd, M. E., Gaughan, J. P., Seamon, M. J., et al. (2010). An analysis of inner-city students’ attitudes towards violence before and after participation in the “Cradle to Grave” programme. Injury, 41, 110–115.
Goldstick, J. E., Carter, P. M., Walton, M. A., Dahlberg, L. L., Sumner, S. A., Zimmerman, M. A., et al. (2017). Development of the SaFETy score: A clinical screening tool for predicting future firearm violence risk. Annals of Internal Medicine, 166, 707–714. https://doi.org/10.7326/M16-1927
Green, J., Damle, R. N., Kasper, R. E., Violano, P., Manno, M., Nazarey, P. P., et al. (2017). Are “goods for guns” good for the community? An update of a community gun buyback program. Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery, 83, 284–288.
Gross, A., Miltenberger, R., Knudson, P., Bosch, A., & Breitwieser, C. B. (2007). Preliminary evaluation of a parent training program to prevent gun play. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 40, 691–695.
Grossman, D. C., Cummings, P., Koepsell, T. D., Marshall, J., D’Ambrosio, L., Thompson, R. S., et al. (2000). Firearm safety counseling in primary care pediatrics: A randomized, controlled trial. Pediatrics, 106, 22–26.
Grossman, D. C., Stafford, H. A., Koepsell, T. D., Hill, R., Retzer, K. D., & Jones, W. (2012). Improving firearm storage in Alaska native villages: A randomized trial of household gun cabinets. American Journal of Public Health, 102, S291–S297.
Hardy, M. S. (2002). Teaching firearm safety to children: Failure of a program. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 23, 71–76.
Hardy, M. S., Armstrong, F. D., Martin, B. L., & Strawn, K. N. (1996). A firearm safety program for children: They just can’t say no. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP, 17, 216–221.
Hayes, D. N., & Sege, R. (2003). FiGHTS: A preliminary screening tool for adolescent firearms-carrying. Annals of Emergency Medicine, 42, 798–807.
Heinze, J. E., Reischl, T. M., Bai, M., Roche, J. S., Morrel-Samuels, S., Cunningham, R. M., et al. (2016). A comprehensive prevention approach to reducing assault offenses and assault injuries among youth. Prevention Science: The Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research, 17, 167–176. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11121-015-0616-1
Himle, M. B., Miltenberger, R. G., Flessner, C., & Gatheridge, B. (2004a). Teaching safety skills to children to prevent gun play. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 37, 1–9.
Himle, M. B., Miltenberger, R. G., Gatheridge, B. J., & Flessner, C. A. (2004b). An evaluation of two procedures for training skills to prevent gun play in children. Pediatrics, 113, 70–77.
Horn, A., Grossman, D. C., Jones, W., & Berger, L. (2003). Community based program to improve firearm storage practices in rural Alaska. Injury Prevention, 9, 231–234.
Howard, P. K. (2005). Evaluation of age-appropriate firearm safety interventions. Pediatric Emergency Care, 21, 473–479.
Howell, E. M., & Abraham, P. (2013). The hospital costs of firearm assaults. Washington, DC: Urban Institute.
J Celeste Kallenborn MBA, R., Kathie Gonzales BSN, R., Crane, N. B., Karen Pesce BSN, R., Sherry Swan BSN, R., & Flint, L. (2004). Cease Fire Tampa Bay: A three-tiered approach to firearm injury prevention. Journal of Trauma Nursing, 11, 6.
Jostad, C. M., & Miltenberger, R. G. (2004). Firearm injury prevention skills: Increasing the efficiency of training with peer tutoring. Child & Family Behavior Therapy, 26, 21–35.
Kasper, R. E., Green, J., Damle, R. N., Aidlen, J., Nazarey, P., Manno, M., et al. (2017). And the survey said… evaluating rationale for participation in gun buybacks as a tool to encourage higher yields. Journal of Pediatric Surgery, 52(2), 354–359.
Kelso, P. D., Miltenberger, R. G., Waters, M. A., Egemo-Helm, K., & Bagne, A. G. (2007). Teaching skills to second and third grade children to prevent gun play: A comparison of procedures. Education and Treatment of Children, 30, 29–48.
Kenny, M. C., & Wurtele, S. K. (2016). Teaching preschoolers safety rules: A pilot study of injury prevention. Children’s Health Care, 45, 428–440.
Komro, K. A. (1999). Adolescents’ access to firearms: Epidemiology and prevention. Journal of Health Education, 30, 290–296.
Kruesi, M. J., Grossman, J., Pennington, J. M., Woodward, P. J., Duda, D., & Hirsch, J. G. (1999). Suicide and violence prevention: Parent education in the emergency department. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 38, 250–255.
Kunkel, P., Thomas, C. J., Seguin, C., Dereczyk, D., Rajda, C., & Brandt, M.-M. (2010). A hospital-based violence prevention tour: A collaborative approach to empower youth. Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery, 68, 289–293.
Liller, K. D., Perrin, K., Nearns, J., Pesce, K., Crane, N. B., & Gonzalez, R. R. (2003). Evaluation of the “Respect Not Risk” firearm safety lesson for 3rd-graders. The Journal of School Nursing, 19, 338–343.
Loh, K., Walton, M. A., Harrison, S. R., Zimmerman, M., Stanley, R., Chermack, S. T., et al. (2010). Prevalence and correlates of handgun access among adolescents seeking care in an urban emergency department. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 42, 347–353. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2009.11.012
McGuire, M., Manno, M., Rook, A., Maranda, L., Renaud, E., DeRoss, A., et al. (2011). Goods for guns—the use of a gun buyback as an injury prevention/community education tool. Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery, 71, S537–S540.
Milam, A. J., Buggs, S. A., Furr-Holden, C. D. M., Leaf, P. J., Bradshaw, C. P., & Webster, D. (2016). Changes in attitudes toward guns and shootings following implementation of the Baltimore Safe Streets intervention. Journal of Urban Health, 93, 609–626.
Miltenberger, R. G., Gatheridge, B. J., Satterlund, M., Egemo-Helm, K. R., Johnson, B. M., Jostad, C., et al. (2005). Teaching safety skills to children to prevent gun play: An evaluation of in situ training. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 38, 395–398.
Moher, D., Liberati, A., Tetzlaff, J., & Altman, D. G. (2009). Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement. Annals of Internal Medicine, 151, 264–269.
Moyer, R., MacDonald, J. M., Ridgeway, G., & Branas, C. C. (2019). Effect of remediating blighted vacant land on shootings: A citywide cluster randomized trial. American Journal of Public Health, 109, 140–144.
Oatis, P. J., Buderer, N. M. F., Cummings, P., & Fleitz, R. (1999). Pediatric practice based evaluation of the Steps to Prevent Firearm Injury program. Injury Prevention, 5, 48–52.
Ouzzani, M., Hammady, H., Fedorowicz, Z., & Elmagarmid, A. (2016). Rayyan: A web and mobile app for systematic reviews. Systematic Reviews, 5, 210.
Parikh, K., Silver, A., Patel, S. J., Iqbal, S. F., & Goyal, M. (2017). Pediatric firearm-related injuries in the United States. Hospital Pediatrics, hpeds. 2016-0146.
Regan, M. E. (2009). Implementation and evaluation of a youth violence prevention program for adolescents. The Journal of School Nursing, 25, 27–33.
Reich, K., Culross, P. L., & Behrman, R. E. (2002). Children, youth, and gun violence: Analysis and recommendations. The Future of Children, 12, 5–23.
Reischl, T. M., Zimmerman, M. A., Morrel-Samuels, S., Franzen, S. P., Faulk, M., Eisman, A. B., et al. (2011). Youth empowerment solutions for violence prevention. Adolescent Medicine-State of the Art Reviews, 22, 581.
Rivara, F. P., & Fan, M. D. (2017). Pediatricians, firearms, and the First Amendment. JAMA Pediatrics, 171, 723–724.
Roberto, A., Meyer, G., Johnson, A. J., Atkin, C., & Smith, P. (2002). Promoting gun trigger-lock use: Insights and implications from a radio-based health communication intervention. Journal of Applied Communication Research, 30, 210–230.
Roszko, P. J., Ameli, J., Carter, P. M., Cunningham, R. M., & Ranney, M. L. (2016). Clinician attitudes, screening practices, and interventions to reduce firearm-related injury. Epidemiologic Reviews, 38, 87–110. https://doi.org/10.1093/epirev/mxv005
Rowhani-Rahbar, A., Simonetti, J. A., & Rivara, F. P. (2016). Effectiveness of interventions to promote safe firearm storage. Epidemiologic Reviews, 38, 111–124.
Rowhani-Rahbar, A., Zatzick, D., Wang, J., Mills, B. M., Simonetti, J. A., Fan, M. D., et al. (2015). Firearm-related hospitalization and risk for subsequent violent injury, death, or crime perpetration: A cohort study. Annals of Internal Medicine, 162, 492–500.
Runyan, C. W., Becker, A., Brandspigel, S., Barber, C., Trudeau, A., & Novins, D. (2016). Lethal means counseling for parents of youth seeking emergency care for suicidality. Western Journal of Emergency Medicine, 17, 8.
Sangvai, S., Cipriani, L., Colborn, D. K., & Wald, E. R. (2007). Studying injury prevention: Practices, problems, and pitfalls in implementation. Clinical Pediatrics, 46, 228–235.
Scott, J., Azrael, D., & Miller, M. (2018). Firearm storage in homes with children with self-harm risk factors. Pediatrics, e20172600.
Sidman, E. A., Grossman, D. C., Koepsell, T. D., D’Ambrosio, L., Britt, J., Simpson, E. S., et al. (2005). Evaluation of a community-based handgun safe-storage campaign. Pediatrics, 115, e654–e661.
Simonetti, J. A., Rowhani-Rahbar, A., King, C., Bennett, E., & Rivara, F. P. (2018). Evaluation of a community-based safe firearm and ammunition storage intervention. Injury Prevention, 24, 218–223.
Skogan, W., Hartnett, S., Bump, N., & Dubois, J. (2009). Evaluation of CeaseFire-Chicago. Northwestern University Illinois. Retrieved from https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/227181.pdf. Accessed 2 Nov 2018.
Stevens, M. M., Olson, A. L., Gaffney, C. A., Tosteson, T. D., Mott, L. A., & Starr, P. (2002). A pediatric, practice-based, randomized trial of drinking and smoking prevention and bicycle helmet, gun, and seatbelt safety promotion. Pediatrics, 109, 490–497.
Thomas, S. B., Leite, B., & Duncan, T. (1998). Breaking the cycle of violence among youth living in metropolitan Atlanta: A case history of kids alive and loved. Health Education & Behavior, 25, 160–174.
Tucker, J. B., Barone, J. E., Stewart, J., Hogan, R. J., Sarnelle, J. A., & Blackwood, M. M. (1999). Violence prevention: Reaching adolescents with the message. Pediatric Emergency Care, 15, 436–439.
Urie, B. (1979). The ecology of human development: Experiments by nature and design. Cambridge, MA: Harvard.
Violano, P., Driscoll, C., Chaudhary, N. K., Schuster, K. M., Davis, K. A., Borer, E., et al. (2014). Gun buyback programs: A venue to eliminate unwanted guns in the community. Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery, 77, S46–S50.
Wafer, M. S., & Carruth, A. (2003). “Locks for life”: A gun lock distribution community health intervention program. Journal of Emergency Nursing, 29, 349–351.
Walton, M. A., Chermack, S. T., Shope, J. T., Bingham, C. R., Zimmerman, M. A., Blow, F. C., et al. (2010). Effects of a brief intervention for reducing violence and alcohol misuse among adolescents: A randomized controlled trial. JAMA, 304, 527–535. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2010.1066
Wargo, C., Erdman, D. A., Smith, J. G., Widom, K., & Reardon, J. (2013). Community gun safety in Central Pennsylvania. Journal of Trauma Nursing, 20, 67–73.
Whitehill, J. M., Webster, D. W., & Vernick, J. S. (2013). Street conflict mediation to prevent youth violence: Conflict characteristics and outcomes. Injury Prevention, 19, 204–209.
Williamson, A. A., Guerra, N. G., & Tynan, W. D. (2014). The role of health and mental health care providers in gun violence prevention. Clinical Practice in Pediatric Psychology, 2, 88.
Wolk, C. B., Jager-Hyman, S., Marcus, S. C., Ahmedani, B. K., Zeber, J. E., Fein, J. A., et al. (2017). Developing implementation strategies for firearm safety promotion in paediatric primary care for suicide prevention in two large US health systems: A study protocol for a mixed-methods implementation study. British Medical Journal Open, 7, e014407.
Wolk, C. B., Van Pelt, A. E., Jager-Hyman, S., Ahmedani, B. K., Zeber, J. E., Fein, J. A., et al. (2018). Stakeholder perspectives on implementing a firearm safety intervention in pediatric primary care as a universal suicide prevention strategy: A qualitative study. JAMA Network Open, 1, e185309–e185309.
Zatzick, D., Russo, J., Lord, S. P., Varley, C., Wang, J., Berliner, L., et al. (2014). Collaborative care intervention targeting violence risk behaviors, substance use, and posttraumatic stress and depressive symptoms in injured adolescents: A randomized clinical trial. JAMA Pediatrics, 168, 532–539.
Zimmerman, M. A., Stewart, S. E., Morrel-Samuels, S., Franzen, S., & Reischl, T. M. (2011). Youth empowerment solutions for peaceful communities: Combining theory and practice in a community-level violence prevention curriculum. Health Promotion Practice, 12, 425–439.
We would like to thank Gurpreet Kaur Rana, Informationist at the Taubman Health Sciences Library, University of Michigan, for creating the search strategies. We would also like to thank Jhuree Hong and Jaemin Park, and Stephanie Kostolansky for assisting with title abstract screening, organizing and summarizing articles for review.
This review was funded by NIH/NICHD 1R24HD087149-01A1. The findings and conclusions in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the funding agencies. Supported by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism of the National Institutes of Health K23 AA022641.
Conflict of interest
Quyen M. Ngo, Eric Sigel, Allante Moon, Sara F. Stein, Lynn S. Massey, Frederick Rivara, Cheryl King, Mark Ilgen, Rebecca Cunningham, and Maureen A. Walton declares that they have no conflict of interest.
Human and animal rights and Informed consent
All procedures followed were in accordance with ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional and national) and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2000. Informed consent was obtained from all patients for being included in the study.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Appendix: PubMed scoping review search strategy
Appendix: PubMed scoping review search strategy
Date Searched: March 29, 2018
Final number of results: 782
(gun[tiab] OR guns[tiab] OR handgun[tiab] OR handguns[tiab] OR firearm[tiab] OR firearms[tiab] OR “firearms”[MeSH Terms] OR gunshot[tiab] OR gunshots[tiab] OR shooting[tiab] OR shootings[tiab]))) AND ((“Wounds and Injuries”[Mesh] OR “wounds, gunshot”[MeSH Terms] OR injury[tiab] OR injuries[tiab] OR mortality[tiab] OR non-fatal[tiab] OR nonfatal[tiab] OR fatal[tiab] OR intentional[tiab] OR unintentional[tiab] OR accidental[tiab] OR Homicide[Mesh] OR killing*[tiab] OR murder*[tiab]))) AND (Prevent*[tiab] OR “prevention and control”[Subheading] OR “Primary Prevention”[MeSH Terms] OR “Preventive Health Services”[Mesh]) AND (Behavior[MeSH Terms] OR behavior[tiab] OR “violence prevention”[tiab] OR violence[MeSH] OR crime[MeSH Terms] OR “criminal justice”[tiab] OR Jurisprudence[MeSH] OR “legislation and jurisprudence”[Subheading] OR courts[tiab] OR judicial[tiab] OR counseling[MeSH Terms] OR “Health Promotion”[MeSH Terms] OR “Health Education”[MeSH Terms] OR “Mental Health Services”[MeSH Terms] OR “Community Health Services”[MeSH Terms] OR “community health”[tiab] OR “mental health”[tiab] OR “safe storage”[tiab] OR storage[tiab] OR “gun safety”[tiab] OR safety[MeSH] OR “Residence Characteristics”[MeSH Terms] OR Schools[MeSH Terms] OR “school-based”[tiab] OR school*[tiab] OR “community-based”[tiab] OR communit* OR “Protective Devices”[MeSH Terms] OR bulletproof OR Technology[MeSH Terms] OR technolog*[MeSH Terms] OR “Protective Factors”[MeSH Terms]) AND (adolescent[MeSH Terms] OR youth[MeSH Terms] OR child[MeSH Terms] OR teenager[Title/Abstract] OR teen[Title/Abstract] OR adolescen*[Title/Abstract] OR child[Title/Abstract] OR youth[title/abstract] OR children[Title/Abstract] OR minor[Title/Abstract] OR minors[title/abstract] OR delinquent[Title/Abstract] OR delinquency[Title/Abstract] OR pediatric*[Title/Abstract] OR parent*[tiab]) AND (“1985/01/01”[PDat]: “2018/12/31”[PDat]).
Filters: Publication date from 1985/01/01 to 2018/03/28.
About this article
Cite this article
Ngo, Q.M., Sigel, E., Moon, A. et al. State of the science: a scoping review of primary prevention of firearm injuries among children and adolescents. J Behav Med 42, 811–829 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10865-019-00043-2
- Universal prevention
- Primary prevention
- Firearm injury
- Safe storage
- Firearm carriage