Journal of Behavioral Medicine

, Volume 42, Issue 3, pp 461–468 | Cite as

Current pain severity and electronic cigarettes: an initial empirical investigation

  • Michael J. ZvolenskyEmail author
  • Lorra Garey
  • Nubia A. Mayorga
  • Andrew H. Rogers
  • Michael F. Orr
  • Joseph W. Ditre
  • Natalia Peraza


The present study examined past-month pain severity in relation to e-cigarette dependence, perceived barriers for quitting e-cigarettes, and beliefs about risks associated with using e-cigarettes. Participants were 322 e-cigarette users from the United States (60.2% female, Mage= 36.78 years, SD = 10.62). Results indicated that pain severity was significantly and positively related to e-cigarette dependence, perceived risks of e-cigarette use, and perceived barriers to quitting e-cigarettes. The observed effects were evident above and beyond the variance accounted for by sex, age, education, income, dual cigarette use, frequency of e-cigarette use, and perceived health status. The present study provides novel empirical evidence that pain experience is related to a moderate, yet clinically-meaningful, proportion of the variance in e-cigarette dependence, perceived barriers for quitting e-cigarettes, and beliefs about e-cigarette risks. These findings suggest there is merit to exploring the role of pan experience in the onset and maintenance of e-cigarette use.


Electronic cigarette Tobacco Pain Pain severity Dependence Beliefs 



This study was not supported by any grant funding.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

Michael J. Zvolensky, Lorra Garey, Nubia A. Mayorga, Andrew H. Rogers, Michael F. Orr, Joseph W. Ditre, and Natalia Peraza declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Human and animal rights and Informed consent

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael J. Zvolensky
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  • Lorra Garey
    • 1
  • Nubia A. Mayorga
    • 1
  • Andrew H. Rogers
    • 1
  • Michael F. Orr
    • 1
  • Joseph W. Ditre
    • 4
  • Natalia Peraza
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of HoustonHoustonUSA
  2. 2.Department of Behavioral ScienceThe University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer CenterHoustonUSA
  3. 3.HEALTH InstituteUniversity of HoustonHoustonUSA
  4. 4.Department of PsychologySyracuse UniversitySyracuseUSA

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