The influence of exercise training dose on fasting acylated ghrelin concentration in older women

Abstract

This study investigated if exercise dose affected acylated ghrelin response to exercise training, and how body weight or fat mass changes might affect the responses. Non-obese older women (n = 49) were randomly assigned to 4-month moderate-intensity aerobic exercise of one of two doses (8 or 14 kcal kg−1 body weight weekly). Following exercise training, fasting acylated ghrelin concentrations changed differently between the two groups (p for group × time interaction = 0.050). It decreased in the moderate-dose (Cohen’s d = 0.52, p = 0.019), but did not change in the low-dose exercise group. Adjustment for weight or fat changes did not affect these results. Therefore, exercise training dose can have specific effects on acylated ghrelin that are not dependent on weight or fat loss. However, whether the different acylated ghrelin changes are associated with differing degree of subsequent weight maintenance worth further investigation.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Asakawa, A., Inui, A., Fujimiya, M., Sakamaki, R., Shinfuku, N., Ueta, Y., et al. (2005). Stomach regulates energy balance via acylated ghrelin and desacyl ghrelin. Gut, 54, 18–24.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  2. Bhutani, S., Kahn, E., Tasali, E., & Schoeller, D. A. (2017). Composition of two-week change in body weight under unrestricted free-living conditions. Physiological Reports, 5, e13336. https://doi.org/10.14814/phy2.13336

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  3. Broom, D. R., Miyashita, M., Wasse, L. K., Pulsford, R., King, J. A., Thackray, A. E., et al. (2017). Acute effect of exercise intensity and duration on acylated ghrelin and hunger in men. Journal of Endocrinology, 232, 411–422.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  4. Deighton, K., Barry, R., Connon, C. E., & Stensel, D. J. (2013). Appetite, gut hormone and energy intake responses to low volume sprint interval and traditional endurance exercise. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 113, 1147–1156.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  5. Deighton, K., Batterham, R. L., & Stensel, D. J. (2014). Appetite and gut peptide responses to exercise and calorie restriction. The effect of modest energy deficits. Appetite, 81, 52–59.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  6. Espelund, U., Hansen, T. K., Orskov, H., & Frystyk, J. (2003). Assessment of ghrelin. APMIS Supplementum, 109, 140–145.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. Foster-Schubert, K. E., McTiernan, A., Frayo, R. S., Schwartz, R. S., Rajan, K. B., Yasui, Y., et al. (2005). Human plasma ghrelin levels increase during a one-year exercise program. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 90, 820–825.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  8. Gibbons, C., Blundell, J. E., Caudwell, P., Webb, D. L., Hellstrom, P. M., Naslund, E., et al. (2017). The role of episodic postprandial peptides in exercise-induced compensatory eating. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 102, 4051–4059.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  9. Gil-Campos, M., Aguilera, C. M., Cañete, R., & Gil, A. (2006). Ghrelin: A hormone regulating food intake and energy homeostasis. British Journal of Nutrition, 96, 201–226.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  10. Hansen, T. K., Dall, R., Hosoda, H., Kojima, M., Kangawa, K., Christiansen, J. S., et al. (2002). Weight loss increases circulating levels of ghrelin in human obesity. Clinical Endocrinology, 56, 203–206.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  11. Heden, T. D., Liu, Y., Park, Y., Dellsperger, K. C., & Kanaley, J. A. (2013). Acute aerobic exercise differentially alters acylated ghrelin and perceived fullness in normal-weight and obese individuals. Journal of Applied Physiology, 115, 680–687.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  12. Holliday, A., & Blannin, A. (2017). Appetite, food intake and gut hormone responses to intense aerobic exercise of different duration. Journal of Endocrinology, 235, 193–205.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  13. Hosoda, H., Kojima, M., Matsuo, H., & Kangawa, K. (2000). Ghrelin and des-acyl ghrelin: Two major forms of rat ghrelin peptide in gastrointestinal tissue. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 279, 909–913.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  14. Kang, S. J., Kim, J. H., Gang, Z., Yook, Y. S., Yoon, J. R., Ha, G. C., et al. (2018). Effects of 12-week circuit exercise program on obesity index, appetite regulating hormones, and insulin resistance in middle-aged obese females. Journal of Physical Therapy Science, 30, 169–173.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  15. King, J. A., Wasse, L. K., Ewens, J., Crystallis, K., Emmanuel, J., Batterham, R. L., et al. (2011). Differential acylated ghrelin, peptide YY3–36, appetite, and food intake responses to equivalent energy deficits created by exercise and food restriction. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 96, 1114–1121.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  16. Klok, M. D., Jakobsdottir, S., & Drent, M. L. (2007). The role of leptin and ghrelin in the regulation of food intake and body weight in humans: A review. Obesity Reviews, 8, 21–34.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  17. Leidy, H. J., Gardner, J. K., Frye, B. R., Snook, M. L., Schuchert, M. K., Richard, E. L., et al. (2004). Circulating ghrelin is sensitive to changes in body weight during a diet and exercise program in normal-weight young women. [Research Support, U S Gov’t, P H S]. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 89, 2659–2664.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  18. Mason, C., Xiao, L., Imayama, I., Duggan, C. R., Campbell, K. L., Kong, A., et al. (2015). The effects of separate and combined dietary weight loss and exercise on fasting ghrelin concentrations in overweight and obese women: A randomized controlled trial. Clinical Endocrinology—Oxford, 82, 369–376.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  19. Otto, B., Cuntz, U., Fruehauf, E., Wawarta, R., Folwaczny, C., Riepl, R. L., et al. (2001). Weight gain decreases elevated plasma ghrelin concentrations of patients with anorexia nervosa. European Journal of Endocrinology, 145, 669–673.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  20. Prado, W. L., Lofrano-Prado, M. C., Oyama, L. M., Cardel, M., Gomes, P. P., Andrade, M. L., et al. (2015). Effect of a 12-week low vs. high intensity aerobic exercise training on appetite-regulating hormones in obese adolescents: A randomized exercise intervention study. Pediatric Exercise Science, 27, 510–517.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  21. Ravussin, E., Tschop, M., Morales, S., Bouchard, C., & Heiman, M. L. (2001). Plasma ghrelin concentration and energy balance: Overfeeding and negative energy balance studies in twins. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 86, 4547–4551.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  22. Rosenkilde, M., Reichkendler, M. H., Auerbach, P., Torang, S., Gram, A. S., Ploug, T., et al. (2013). Appetite regulation in overweight, sedentary men after different amounts of endurance exercise: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Applied Physiology, 115, 1599–1609.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  23. Wang, X., Bowyer, K. P., Porter, R. R., Breneman, C. B., & Custer, S. S. (2017). Energy expenditure responses to exercise training in older women. Physiological Reports, 5, e13360.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

Download references

Funding

This work was supported by the United States National Institutes of Health (Grant Number R00AG031297).

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Xuewen Wang.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

Kimberly P. Bowyer, James A. Carson, J. Mark Davis and Xuewen Wang declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Human and animal rights and Informed consent

All procedures performed in this study were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. Informed consent was obtained from all patients for being included in the study.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Bowyer, K.P., Carson, J.A., Davis, J.M. et al. The influence of exercise training dose on fasting acylated ghrelin concentration in older women. J Behav Med 42, 567–572 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10865-018-9990-z

Download citation

Keywords

  • Ghrelin
  • Exercise training
  • Weight loss
  • Energy balance
  • Older women