Daily self-weighing and weight gain prevention: a longitudinal study of college-aged women

  • Diane L. Rosenbaum
  • Hallie M. Espel
  • Meghan L. Butryn
  • Fengqing Zhang
  • Michael R. Lowe
BRIEF REPORT

Abstract

Daily self-weighing has been suggested as an important factor for weight loss maintenance among samples with obesity. This study is a secondary analysis that examined daily self-weighing in association with weight and body composition outcomes over 2 years among young women with vulnerability for weight gain. Women (N = 294) of varying weight status completed self-weighing frequency questionnaires and weight was measured in the clinic at baseline, 6 months, 1, and 2 years; DXA scans were completed at baseline, 6 months and 2 years. Multilevel models examined the relationship between daily self-weighing (at any point in the study) and trajectories of BMI and body fat percentage. Daily self-weighing was associated with significant declines in BMI and body fat percent over time. Future research is needed to examine causal relations between daily self-weighing and weight gain prevention. Nonetheless, these data extend the possibility that daily self-weighing may be important for prevention of unwanted weight gain.

Keywords

Self-weighing Weight change Body fat change Longitudinal Obesity prevention 

References

  1. Arigo, D., Butryn, M. L., Raggio, G. A., Stice, E., & Lowe, M. R. (2016). Predicting change in physical activity: A longitudinal investigation among weight-concerned college women. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 50, 629. doi:10.1007/s12160-016-9788-6 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Basagaña, X., & Spiegelman, D. (2010). Power and sample size calculations for longitudinal studies comparing rates of change with a time-varying exposure. Statistics in Medicine, 29, 181–192.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. Bates, D., Mächler, M., Bolker, B., & Walker, S. (2015). Fitting linear mixed-effects models using lme4. Journal of Statistical Software, 67, 48. doi:10.18637/jss.v067.i01 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bertz, F., Pacanowski, C. R., & Levitsky, D. A. (2015). Frequent self-weighing with electronic graphic feedback to prevent age-related weight gain in young adults. Obesity (Silver Spring), 23, 2009–2014. doi:10.1002/oby.21211 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Butryn, M. L., Phelan, S., Hill, J. O., & Wing, R. R. (2007). Consistent self-monitoring of weight: A key component of successful weight loss maintenance. Obesity (Silver Spring), 15, 3091–3096. doi:10.1038/oby.2007.368 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Deurenberg, P., & Deurenberg-Yap, M. (2001). Differences in body-composition assumptions across ethnic groups: Practical consequences. Current Opinion in Clinical Nurition and Metabolic Care, 4, 377–383.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Gelman, A., & Hill, J. (2007). Data analysis using regression and multilevel/hierarchical models. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  8. Gokee-LaRose, J., Gorin, A. A., & Wing, R. R. (2009). Behavioral self-regulation for weight loss in young adults: A randomized controlled trial. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 6, 10. doi:10.1186/1479-5868-6-10 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. Haines, J., Kleinman, K. P., Rifas-Shiman, S. L., Field, A. E., & Austin, S. B. (2010). Examination of shared risk and protective factors for overweight and disordered eating among adolescents. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 164, 336–343.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. Han, T. S., Sattar, N., & Lean, M. (2006). Assessment of obesity and its clinical implications. BMJ, 333, 695–698. doi:10.1136/bmj.333.7570.695 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. Hedeker, D., & Gibbons, R. D. (1997). Application of random-effects pattern-mixture models for missing data in longitudinal studies. Psychological Methods, 2, 64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hoffman, L. (2015). Longitudinal analysis: Modeling within-person fluctuation and change. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  13. IBM Corp. (Released 2014). IBM SPSS statistics for Windows, version 23.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp.Google Scholar
  14. Katterman, S. N., Butryn, M. L., Hood, M. M., & Lowe, M. R. (2016). Daily weight monitoring as a method of weight gain prevention in healthy weight and overweight young adult women. Journal of Health Psychology, 21, 2955–2965. doi:10.1177/1359105315589446 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Klem, M. L., Wing, R. R., McGuire, M. T., Seagle, H. M., & Hill, J. O. (1997). A descriptive study of individuals successful at long-term maintenance of substantial weight loss. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 66, 239–246.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Klesges, R. C., Isbell, T. R., & Klesges, L. M. (1992). Relationship between dietary restraint, energy intake, physical activity, and body weight: A prospective analysis. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 101, 668–674. doi:10.1037/0021-843X.101.4.668 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Kuznetsova, A., Brockhoff, P. B., & Christensen, R. H. B. (2015). lmerTest: Tests for random and fixed effects for linear mixed effect models.. http://CRAN.R-project.org/package=lmerTest
  18. Levitsky, D. A., Garay, J., Nausbaum, M., Neighbors, L., & Dellavalle, D. M. (2006). Monitoring weight daily blocks the freshman weight gain: A model for combating the epidemic of obesity. International Journal of Obesity (London), 30, 1003–1010. doi:10.1038/sj.ijo.0803221 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Linde, J. A., Jeffery, R. W., Finch, E. A., Simon, G. E., Ludman, E. J., Operskalski, B. H., et al. (2007). Relation of body mass index to depression and weighing frequency in overweight women. Preventive Medicine, 45, 75–79. doi:10.1016/j.ypmed.2007.03.008 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. Linde, J. A., Jeffery, R. W., French, S. A., Pronk, N. P., & Boyle, R. G. (2005). Self-weighing in weight gain prevention and weight loss trials. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 30, 210–216.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Lloyd-Richardson, E. E., Bailey, S., Fava, J. L., & Wing, R. (2009). A prospective study of weight gain during the college freshman and sophomore years. Preventive Medicine, 48, 256–261.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Lowe, M. R., Annunziato, R. A., Markowitz, J. T., Didie, E., Bellace, D. L., Riddell, L., et al. (2006). Multiple types of dieting prospectively predict weight gain during the freshman year of college. Appetite, 47, 83–90. doi:10.1016/j.appet.2006.03.160 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Lowe, M. R., Arigo, D., Butryn, M. L., Gilbert, J. R., Sarwer, D., & Stice, E. (2016). Hedonic hunger prospectively predicts onset and maintenance of loss of control eating among college women. Health Psychology, 35(3), 238–244. doi:10.1037/hea0000291 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Maas, C. J., & Hox, J. J. (2005). Sufficient sample sizes for multilevel modeling. Methodology, 1, 86–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. McGuire, M. T., Wing, R. R., Klem, M. L., & Hill, J. O. (1999). Behavioral strategies of individuals who have maintained long-term weight losses. Obesity Research, 7, 334–341.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Mihalopoulos, N. L., Auinger, P., & Klein, J. D. (2008). The freshman 15: Is it real? Journal of American College Health, 56, 531–533.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. Nelson, M. C., Story, M., Larson, N. I., Neumark-Sztainer, D., & Lytle, L. A. (2008). Emerging adulthood and college-aged youth: An overlooked age for weight-related behavior change. Obesity, 16, 2205–2211. doi:10.1038/oby.2008.365 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Neumark-Sztainer, D., Paxton, S. J., Hannan, P. J., Haines, J., & Story, M. (2006). Does body satisfaction matter? Five-year longitudinal associations between body satisfaction and health behaviors in adolescent females and males. Journal of Adolescent Health, 39(2), 244–251. doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2005.12.001 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Neumark-Sztainer, D., Wall, M. M., Haines, J. I., Story, M. T., Sherwood, N. E., & van den Berg, P. A. (2007). Shared risk and protective factors for overweight and disordered eating in adolescents. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 33, 359–369.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Ogden, C. L., Carroll, M. D., Fryar, C. D., & Flegal, K. M. (2015). Prevalence of obesity among adults and youth: United States, 20112014. NCHS data brief, no 219. Retrieved from Hyattsville, MD.Google Scholar
  31. Pliner, P., & Saunders, T. (2008). Vulnerability to freshman weight gain as a function of dietary restraint and residence. Physiology & Behavior, 93, 76–82. doi:10.1016/j.physbeh.2007.07.017 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Racette, S. B., Deusinger, S. S., Strube, M. J., Highstein, G. R., & Deusinger, R. H. (2008). Changes in weight and health behaviors from freshman through senior year of college. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior, 40, 39–42. doi:10.1016/j.jneb.2007.01.001 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. RStudio Team. (2015). RStudio: Integrated development for R. Version 0.99.902. Boston, MA: RStudio, Inc. Retrieved from http://www.rstudio.com/
  34. Sonneville, K. R., Calzo, J. P., Horton, N. J., Haines, J., Austin, S. B., & Field, A. E. (2012). Body satisfaction, weight gain, and binge eating among overweight adolescent girls. International Journal of Obesity, 36, 944–949. doi:10.1038/ijo.2012.68 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. Steinberg, D. M., Bennett, G. G., Askew, S., & Tate, D. F. (2015). Weighing every day matters: Daily weighing improves weight loss and adoption of weight control behaviors. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 115, 511–518. doi:10.1016/j.jand.2014.12.011 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. Stice, E., Durant, S., Burger, K. S., & Schoeller, D. A. (2011). Weight suppression and risk of future increases in body mass: Effects of suppressed resting metabolic rate and energy expenditure. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 94, 7–11.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. VanWormer, J. J., French, S. A., Pereira, M. A., & Welsh, E. M. (2008). The impact of regular self-weighing on weight management: A systematic literature review. The International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 5, 54. doi:10.1186/1479-5868-5-54 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  38. Vella-Zarb, R. A., & Elgar, F. J. (2009). The ‘Freshman 5’: A meta-analysis of weight gain in the freshman year of college. Journal of American College Health, 58(2), 161–166. doi:10.1080/07448480903221392 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Wing, R. R. (1998). Behavioral approaches to the treatment of obesity. In G. A. Bray, C. Bouchard, & W. P. T. James (Eds.), Handbook of obesity (pp. 855–877). New York: Marcel Dekker.Google Scholar
  40. Wing, R. R., Tate, D., LaRose, J. G., Gorin, A. A., Erickson, K., Robichaud, E. F., et al. (2015). Frequent self-weighing as part of a constellation of healthy weight control practices in young adults. Obesity (Silver Spring), 23, 943–949. doi:10.1002/oby.21064 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Zheng, Y., Klem, M. L., Sereika, S. M., Danford, C. A., Ewing, L. J., & Burke, L. E. (2015). Self-weighing in weight management: A systematic literature review. Obesity (Silver Spring), 23, 256–265. doi:10.1002/oby.20946 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Diane L. Rosenbaum
    • 1
    • 2
  • Hallie M. Espel
    • 1
  • Meghan L. Butryn
    • 1
  • Fengqing Zhang
    • 1
  • Michael R. Lowe
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyDrexel UniversityPhiladelphiaUSA
  2. 2.Department of Psychiatry, Perelman School of MedicineUniversity of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphiaUSA

Personalised recommendations