Journal of Behavioral Medicine

, Volume 40, Issue 4, pp 595–601 | Cite as

Effects of breakfast eating and eating frequency on body mass index and weight loss outcomes in adults enrolled in an obesity treatment program

Article

Abstract

This study examined the effects of breakfast eating and eating frequency on objectively assessed BMI and weight loss outcomes among adults enrolled in obesity treatment. Participants completed measures of breakfast eating and eating frequency before and after treatment and had their height and weight measured. Baseline breakfast eating and eating frequency were not associated with baseline BMI (p = .34, p = .45, respectively) and did not predict weight loss during treatment (p = .36, p = .58, respectively). From pre- to post-treatment, there was no significant change in eating frequency (p = .27) and changes in eating frequency had no impact on weight loss (r = −.08, p = .23). However, increases in breakfast eating during treatment were associated with significantly better weight loss outcomes (r = .26, p < .001). Among participants who increased breakfast eating, those who had either no change or a decrease in daily eating frequency were more likely to achieve a 5% weight loss compared to those who had an increase in daily eating frequency (p = .04). These results suggest that increasing breakfast eating, while simultaneously reducing or keeping eating frequency constant, may improve outcomes in obesity treatment. Experimental studies are needed to further elucidate these effects.

Keywords

Breakfast Eating frequency BMI Weight loss Obesity treatment 

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Allied Health SciencesUniversity of Connecticut College of Agriculture and Natural ResourcesStorrsUSA
  2. 2.The Miriam Hospital/Alpert Medical School of Brown UniversityProvidenceUSA

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