Future directions in physical activity intervention research: expanding our focus to sedentary behaviors, technology, and dissemination

Abstract

Despite the increased health risks of a sedentary lifestyle, only 49 % of American adults participate in physical activity (PA) at the recommended levels. In an effort to move the PA field forward, we briefly review three emerging areas of PA intervention research. First, new intervention research has focused on not only increasing PA but also on decreasing sedentary behavior. Researchers should utilize randomized controlled trials, common terminology, investigate which behaviors should replace sedentary behaviors, evaluate long-term outcomes, and focus across the lifespan. Second, technology has contributed to an increase in sedentary behavior but has also led to innovative PA interventions. PA technology research should focus on large randomized trials with evidence-based components, explore social networking and innovative apps, improve PA monitoring, consider the lifespan, and be grounded in theory. Finally, in an effort to maximize public health impact, dissemination efforts should address the RE-AIM model, health disparities, and intervention costs.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. Abraham, C., & Michie, S. (2008). A taxonomy of behavior change techniques used in interventions. Health Psychology, 27, 379.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  2. Alkhajah, T. A., Reeves, M. M., Eakin, E. G., Winkler, E. A., Owen, N., & Healy, G. N. (2012). Sit-Stand workstations: A pilot intervention to reduce office sitting time. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 43, 298–303.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  3. American Heart Association. (2015). Physical activity improves quality of life. Retrieved from http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/GettingHealthy/PhysicalActivity/StartWalking/Physical-activity-improves-quality-of-life_UCM_307977_Article.jsp#.Vo7YLcYrK70

  4. American Public Health Association. (2016). Supporting the national physical activity plan. Retrieved from http://apha.org/policies-and-advocacy/public-health-policy-statements/policy-database/2014/07/11/16/36/supporting-the-national-physical-activity-plan

  5. Antikainen, I., & Ellis, R. (2011). A RE-AIM evaluation of theory-based physical activity interventions. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 33, 198–214.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  6. Arigo, D. (2015). Promoting physical activity among women using wearable technology and online social connectivity: A feasibility study. Health Psychology and Behavioral Medicine, 3, 391–409.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Australian Government Department of Health. (2014). Australia’s physical activity and sedentary behaviour Guidelines. Retrieved from http://www.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/content/health-pubhlth-strateg-phys-act-guidelines

  8. Bacigalupo, R., Cudd, P., Littlewood, C., Bissell, P., Hawley, M. S., & Buckley Woods, H. (2013). Interventions employing mobile technology for overweight and obesity: An early systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Obesity Reviews, 14, 279–291.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  9. Blackman, K. C., Zoellner, J., Berrey, L. M., Alexander, R., Fanning, J., Hill, J. L., et al. (2013). Assessing the internal and external validity of mobile health physical activity promotion interventions: A systematic literature review using the RE-AIM framework. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 15, e224.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  10. Bond, D. S., Thomas, J. G., Raynor, H. A., Moon, J., Sieling, J., Trautvetter, J., et al. (2014). B-mobile-a smartphone-based intervention to reduce sedentary time in overweight/obese individuals: A within-subjects experimental trial. PLOS One, 9, e100821.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  11. Bort-Roig, J., Gilson, N. D., Puig-Ribera, A., Contreras, R. S., & Trost, S. G. (2014). Measuring and influencing physical activity with smartphone technology: A systematic review. Sports Medicine, 44, 671–686.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  12. Buckworth, J., & Nigg, C. R. (2004). Physical activity, exercise, and sedentary behavior in college students. Journal of American College Health, 53, 28–34.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  13. Buman, M. P., Giacobbi, P. R., Jr., Dzierzewski, J. M., McCrae, C. S., Roberts, B. L., & Marsiske, M. (2011). Peer volunteers improve long-term maintenance of physical activity with older adults: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 8, S257–S266.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  14. Buman, M. P., Winkler, E. A., Kurka, J. M., Hekler, E. B., Baldwin, C. M., Owen, N., et al. (2013). Reallocating time to sleep, sedentary behaviors, or active behaviors: Associations with cardiovascular disease risk biomarkers, NHANES 2005–2006. American Journal of Epidemiology, 179, 323–334.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  15. Burke, L., Lee, A. H., Jancey, J., Xiang, L., Kerr, D. A., Howat, P. A., et al. (2013). Physical activity and nutrition behavioural outcomes of a home-based intervention program for seniors: A randomized controlled trial. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 10, 14.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  16. Cadmus-Bertram, L., Marcus, B. H., Patterson, R. E., Parker, B. A., & Morey, B. L. (2015). Use of the fitbit to measure adherence to a physical activity Intervention among overweight or obese, postmenopausal women: Self-monitoring trajectory during 16 Weeks. JMIR mHealth and uHealth, 3, e96.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  17. Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology. (2012). Canadian physical activity guidelines, Canadian sedentary behaviour guidelines. Retrieved from http://www.csep.ca/CMFiles/Guidelines/CSEP_Guidelines_Handbook.pdf

  18. Castro, C. M., Pruitt, L. A., Buman, M. P., & King, A. C. (2011). Physical activity program delivery by professionals versus volunteers: The TEAM randomized trial. Health Psychology, 30, 285–294.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  19. Cavallo, D. N., Tate, D. F., Ries, A. V., Brown, J. D., DeVellis, R. F., & Ammerman, A. S. (2012). A social media-based physical activity intervention: a randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 43, 527–532.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  20. Centers for Disease Control. (2014). 2014 State indicator report on physical activity. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/physicalactivity/downloads/pa_state_indicator_report_2014.pdf

  21. Centers for Disease Control. (2015). Early release of selected estimates based on data from the national health interview survey, 2014. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nhis/earlyrelease/earlyrelease201506_07.pdf

  22. Church, T. S., Thomas, D. M., Tudor-Locke, C., Katzmarzyk, P. T., Earnest, C. P., Rodarte, R. Q., et al. (2011). Trends over 5 decades in US occupation-related physical activity and their associations with obesity. PLoS One, 6, e19657.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  23. Clark, B., & Sugiyama, T. (2015). Prevalence, trends, and correlates of sedentary behavior. In K. Kanosue (Ed.), Physical activity, exercise, sedentary behavior and health. Tokyo: Springer.

  24. Dantzig, S., Geleijnse, G., & Halteren, A. T. (2013). Toward a persuasive mobile application to reduce sedentary behavior. Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, 17, 1237–1246.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Dishman, R. K. (1988). Exercise adherence research: Future directions. American Journal of Health Promotion, 3, 52–56.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Dutta, N., Koepp, G. A., Stovitz, S. D., Levine, J. A., & Pereira, M. A. (2014). Using sit-stand workstations to decrease sedentary time in office workers: A randomized crossover trial. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 11, 6653–6665.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  27. Edwardson, C. L., Gorely, T., Davies, M. J., Gray, L. J., Khunti, K., Wilmot, E. G., et al. (2012). Association of sedentary behaviour with metabolic syndrome: A meta-analysis. PLoS One, 7, e34916.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  28. Ekelund, U., Gorely, T., Griffiths, M., Jago, R., Oppert, J. M., Raats, M., et al. (2010). Sedentary behaviour and obesity: Review of the current scientific evidence. Retrieved from https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/213745/dh_128225.pdf

  29. Fanning, J., Mullen, S. P., & McAuley, E. (2012). Increasing physical activity with mobile devices: A meta-analysis. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 14, e161.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  30. Feldstein, A. C., & Glasgow, R. E. (2008). A practical, robust implementation and sustainability model (PRISM). Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety, 34, 228–243.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  31. Folta, S. C., Lichtenstein, A. H., Seguin, R. A., Goldberg, J. P., Kuder, J. F., & Nelson, M. E. (2009). The strong women-healthy hearts program: Reducing cardiovascular disease risk factors in rural sedentary, overweight, and obese midlife and older women. American Journal of Public Health, 99, 1271.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  32. Folta, S. C., Seguin, R. A., Chui, K. K., Clark, V., Corbin, M. A., Goldberg, J. P., et al. (2015). National dissemination of strong women-healthy hearts: A community-based program to reduce risk of cardiovascular disease among midlife and older women. American Journal of Public Health, 105, 2578–2585.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  33. Gainforth, H. L., West, R., & Michie, S. (2015). Assessing connections between behavior change theories using network analysis. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 49, 754–761.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  34. Glasgow, R. E., Vogt, T. M., & Boles, S. M. (1999). Evaluating the public health impact of health promotion interventions: The RE-AIM framework. American Journal of Public Health, 89, 1322–1327.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  35. Graves, L. E., Murphy, R. C., Shepherd, S. O., Cabot, J., & Hopkins, N. D. (2015). Evaluation of sit-stand workstations in an office setting: A randomised controlled trial. BMC Public Health, 15, 1145.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. Gregory, D. E., & Callaghan, J. P. (2008). Prolonged standing as a precursor for the development of low back discomfort: An investigation of possible mechanisms. Gait and Posture, 28, 86–92.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  37. Healy, G. N., Winkler, E. A., Owen, N., Anuradha, S., & Dunstan, D. W. (2015). Replacing sitting time with standing or stepping: Associations with cardio-metabolic risk biomarkers. European Heart Journal, 36, 2643–2649.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  38. Hurling, R., Catt, M., De Boni, M., Fairley, B. W., Hurst, T., Murray, P., et al. (2007). Using internet and mobile phone technology to deliver an automated physical activity program: Randomized controlled trial. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 9, e7.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  39. Karakolis, T., & Callaghan, J. P. (2014). The impact of sit–stand office workstations on worker discomfort and productivity: A review. Applied Ergonomics, 45, 799–806.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  40. Kessler, R. S., Purcell, E. P., Glasgow, R. E., Klesges, L. M., Benkeser, R. M., & Peek, C. J. (2012). What does it mean to ‘‘employ’’ the RE-AIM model? Evaluation and the Health Professions, 36, 44–66. 

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  41. Khaylis, A., Yiaslas, T., Bergstrom, J., & Gore-Felton, C. (2010). A review of efficacious technology-based weight-loss interventions: Five key components. Telemedicine and E-Health, 16, 931–938.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  42. King, A. C., Glanz, K., & Patrick, K. (2015). Technologies to measure and modify physical activity and eating environments. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 48, 630–638.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  43. King, A. C., Hekler, E. B., Grieco, L. A., Winter, S. J., Sheats, J. L., Buman, M. P., et al. (2013). Harnessing different motivational frames via mobile phones to promote daily physical activity and reduce sedentary behavior in aging adults. PLOS One,. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0062613

    Google Scholar 

  44. Koepp, G. A., Manohar, C. U., McCrady-Spitzer, S. K., Ben-Ner, A., Hamann, D. J., Runge, C. F., et al. (2013). Treadmill desks: A 1-year prospective trial. Obesity, 21, 705–711.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  45. Lewis, Z. H., Lyons, E. J., Jarvis, J. M., & Baillargeon, J. (2015). Using an electronic activity monitor system as an intervention modality: A systematic review. BMC Public Health, 15, 585.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  46. Lewis, B. A., Williams, D. M., Frayeh, A., & Marcus, B. H. (2016). Self-efficacy versus perceived enjoyment as predictors of physical activity behaviour. Psychology & Health, 31, 456–469.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  47. Lupton, D. (2015). Health promotion in the digital era: A critical commentary. Health Promotion International, 30, 174–183.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  48. Manini, T. M., Carr, L. J., King, A. C., Marshall, S., Robinson, T. N., & Rejeski, W. J. (2015). Interventions to reduce sedentary behavior. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 47, 1306–1310.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  49. Marcus, B. H., Hartman, S. J., Larsen, B. A., Pekmezi, D., Dunsiger, S. I., Linke, S., et al. (2016). Pasos Hacia La Salud: A randomized controlled trial of an internet-delivered physical activity intervention for Latinas. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 13, 1.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  50. Marcus, B. H., Lewis, B. A., Williams, D. M., Dunsiger, S., Jakicic, J. M., Whiteley, J. A., et al. (2007). A comparison of Internet and print-based physical activity interventions. Archives of Internal Medicine, 167, 944–949.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  51. Marcus, B. H., Williams, D. M., Dubbert, P. M., Sallis, J. F., King, A. C., Yancey, A. K., et al. (2006). Physical activity intervention studies what we know and what we need to know: A scientific statement from the American Heart Association Council on Nutrition, physical activity, and metabolism (Subcommittee on Physical Activity); Council on cardiovascular disease in the Young; and the Interdisciplinary Working Group on Quality of Care and Outcomes Research. Circulation, 114, 2739–2752.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  52. Martin Ginis, K. A., Nigg, C. R., & Smith, A. L. (2013). Delivery of physical activity interventions through peer mentoring: an overlooked opportunity for physical activity promotion. Translational Behavioral Medicine: Practice, Policy and Research, 3, 434–443.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  53. Matthews, C. E., Chen, K. Y., Freedson, P. S., Buchowski, M. S., Beech, B. M., Pate, R. R., et al. (2008). Amount of time spent in sedentary behaviors in the United States, 2003–2004. American Journal of Epidemiology, 167, 875–881.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  54. McCrady, S. K., & Levine, J. A. (2009). Sedentariness at work: How much do we really sit? Obesity, 17, 2103–2105.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  55. McKenzie, T. L., Cohen, D. A., Sehgal, A., Williamson, S., & Golinelli, D. (2006). System for Observing Play and Recreation in Communities (SOPARC): Reliability and feasibility measures. Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 3, S208.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  56. Michie, S., West, R., & Spring, B. (2013). Moving from theory to practice and back in social and health psychology. Health Psychology, 32, 581–585.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  57. Middelweerd, A., Mollee, J. S., van der Wal, C., Brug, J., & Te Velde, S. J. (2014). Apps to promote physical activity among adults: A review and content analysis. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 11, 97.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  58. Mutrie, N., Doolin, O., Fitzsimons, C. F., Grant, P. M., Granat, M., Grealy, M., et al. (2012). Increasing older adults’ walking through primary care: Results of a pilot randomized controlled trial. Family Practice. doi:10.1093/fampra/cms038

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  59. Napolitano, M. A., Fotheringham, M., Tate, D., Sciamanna, C., Leslie, E., Owen, N., et al. (2003). Evaluation of an internet-based physical activity intervention: A preliminary investigation. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 25, 92–99.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  60. Neuhaus, M., Eakin, E. G., Straker, L., Owen, N., Dunstan, D. W., Reid, N., et al. (2014a). Reducing occupational sedentary time: A systematic review and meta-analysis of evidence on activity-permissive workstations. Obesity Reviews, 15, 822–838.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  61. Neuhaus, M., Healy, G. N., Dunstan, D. W., Owen, N., & Eakin, E. G. (2014b). Workplace sitting and height-adjustable workstations: A randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 46, 30–40.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  62. Nguyen, H. Q., Gill, D. P., Wolpin, S., Steele, B. G., & Benditt, J. O. (2009). Pilot study of a cell phone-based exercise persistence intervention post-rehabilitation for COPD. International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, 4, 301.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  63. Nigg, C., Geller, K., Adams, P., Hamada, M., Hwang, P., & Chung, R. (2012). Successful dissemination of fun 5—A physical activity and nutrition program for children. Translational Behavioral Medicine, 2, 276–285.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  64. Nigg, C. R., & Paxton, R. (2008). Conceptual perspectives used to understand youth physical activity and inactivity. In A. L. Smith & S. J. H. Biddle (Eds.), Youth physical activity and inactivity: Challenges and solutions (pp. 79–113). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

    Google Scholar 

  65. Norman, G. J., Kolodziejczyk, J., Hekler, E. B., & Ramirez, E. R. (2013). How to deliver physical activity messages. In C. R. Nigg (Ed.), ACSM’s behavioral aspects of physical activity and exercise (pp. 149–187). Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

    Google Scholar 

  66. Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research. (2015). Dissemination and Implementation. Retrieved from http://obssr.od.nih.gov/scientific-programs/activeprograms/dissemination_implementation

  67. Pew Internet. (2014a). Mobile technology fact sheet. Retrieved from http://www.pewinternet.org/fact-sheets/mobile-technology-fact-sheet/

  68. Pew Internet. (2014b). Social networking fact sheet. Retrieved from http://www.pewinternet.org/fact-sheets/social-networking-fact-sheet/

  69. Pew Internet. (2015). U.S. Smartphone use in 2015. Retrieved from http://www.pewinternet.org/files/2015/03/PI_Smartphones_0401151.pdf

  70. Physical Activity Guidelines Advisory Committee. (2008). Physical activity guidelines advisory committee report. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

    Google Scholar 

  71. Pratt, M., Sarmiento, O. L., Montes, F., Ogilvie, D., Marcus, B. H., Perez, L. G., et al. (2012). The implications of megatrends in information and communication technology and transportation for changes in global physical activity. The Lancet, 380, 282–293.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  72. Prince, S. A., Saunders, T. J., Gresty, K., & Reid, R. D. (2014). A comparison of the effectiveness of physical activity and sedentary behaviour interventions in reducing sedentary time in adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled trials. Obesity Reviews, 15, 905–919.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  73. Rhodes, R., & Nigg, C. R. (2011). Advancing physical activity theory: A review and future directions. Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews, 39, 113–119.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  74. Rhodes, R. E., & Kates, A. (2015). Can the affective response to exercise predict future motives and physical activity behavior? A systematic review of published evidence. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 49, 715–731.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  75. Riley, W. T., Serrano, K. J., Nilsen, W., & Atienza, A. A. (2015). Mobile and wireless technologies in health behavior and the potential for intensively adaptive interventions. Current Opinion in Psychology, 5, 67–71.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  76. Rosenberg, D. E., Lee, I. M., Young, D. R., Prohaska, T. R., Owen, N., & Buchner, D. M. (2015). Novel strategies for sedentary behavior research. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 47, 1311–1315.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  77. Ryan, C. G., Dall, P. M., Granat, M. H., & Grant, P. M. (2011). Sitting patterns at work: Objective measurement of adherence to current recommendations. Ergonomics, 54, 531–538.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  78. Sedentary Behaviour Research Network. (2012). Letter to the editor: Standardized use of the terms “sedentary” and “sedentary behaviours”. Applied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism, 37, 540–542.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  79. Segar, M. L., Eccles, J. S., & Richardson, C. R. (2011). Rebranding exercise: Closing the gap between values and behavior. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 8, 21884579.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  80. Stevens, C. J., & Bryan, A. D. (2012). Rebranding exercise: There’s an App for that. American Journal of Health Promotion, 27, 69–70.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  81. Symons Downs, D., Nigg, C. R., Hausenblas, H. A., & Rauff, E. L. (2013). Why do people change physical activity behavior. In C. R. Nigg (Ed.), ACSM’s behavioral aspects of physical activity and exercise (pp. 1–38). Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

    Google Scholar 

  82. Thomas, J. G., & Bond, D. S. (2014). Review of innovations in digital health technology to promote weight control. Current Diabetes Reports, 14, 1–10.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  83. Thorp, A. A., Owen, N., Neuhaus, M., & Dunstan, D. W. (2011). Sedentary behaviors and subsequent health outcomes in adults: A systematic review of longitudinal studies, 1996–2011. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 41, 207–215.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  84. Toscos, T., Faber, A., Connelly, K., & Upoma, A. M. (2008). Encouraging physical activity in teens Can technology help reduce barriers to physical activity in adolescent girls? In Pervasive computing technologies for healthcare, 2008. Pervasive Health 2008. Second international conference on (pp. 218–221). IEEE.

  85. Troiano, R. P., Berrigan, D., Dodd, K. W., Masse, L. C., Tilert, T., & McDowell, M. (2008). Physical activity in the United States measured by accelerometer. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 40, 181.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  86. Troiano, R. P., Pettee Gabriel, K. K., Welk, G. J., Owen, N., & Sternfeld, B. (2012). Reported physical activity and sedentary behavior: Why do you ask. Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 9, S68–S75.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  87. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (USDHHS). (2008). Physical activity guidelines for Americans 2008, Washington, D.C., ODPHP Publication No. U0036. 2008 (pp. 1–61).

  88. Williams, D. M., & Evans, D. R. (2014). Current emotion research in health behavior science. Emotion Review, 6, 282–292.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  89. Wilmot, E. G., Edwardson, C. L., Achana, F. A., Davies, M. J., Gorely, T., Gray, L. J., et al. (2012). Sedentary time in adults and the association with diabetes, cardiovascular disease and death: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabetologia, 55, 2895–2905.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  90. Xu, X., Tupy, S. J., Miller, A. L., Correll, D., Nigg, C. R., & Tivis, R., et al. (2015). Successful adherence and lessons learned when using the Fitbit: A 4-week daily dairy study of physical activity among community adults. Mountain West clinical translational research—infrastructure network conference, Las Vegas, NV.

Download references

Acknowledgments

The authors thank the Society of Behavioral Medicine Physical Activity SIG members who reviewed this manuscript including James Sallis, Danielle Arigo, Lisa Cadmus-Bertram, and Mathilda Coday. This manuscript was significantly improved due to the detailed feedback they provided on the first version of this manuscript.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Beth A. Lewis.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

Beth A. Lewis, Melissa A. Napolitano, Matthew P. Buman, David M. Williams and Claudio R. Nigg declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Human and animal rights and Informed consent

All procedures followed were in accordance with ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional and national) and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2000.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Lewis, B.A., Napolitano, M.A., Buman, M.P. et al. Future directions in physical activity intervention research: expanding our focus to sedentary behaviors, technology, and dissemination. J Behav Med 40, 112–126 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10865-016-9797-8

Download citation

Keywords

  • Physical activity
  • Sedentary behavior
  • Dissemination
  • Intervention
  • Technology