Variety support and exercise adherence behavior: experimental and mediating effects

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which the provision of variety (i.e., variety support) is related to exercise behavior among physically inactive adults and the extent to which the ‘experience of variety’ mediates those effects. One hundred and twenty one inactive university students were randomly assigned to follow a high or low variety support exercise program for 6 weeks. Assessments were conducted at baseline, 3- and 6-weeks. Participants in the high variety support condition displayed higher levels of adherence to the exercise program than those in the low variety support condition [F(1, 116) = 5.55, p = .02, η 2p  = .05] and the relationship between variety support and adherence was mediated by perceived variety (β = .16, p < .01). Exercise-related variety support holds potential to be an efficacious method for facilitating greater exercise adherence behaviors of previously inactive people by fostering perceptions of variety.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2

References

  1. Baumeister, R. F., & Leary, M. R. (1995). The need to belong: Desire for interpersonal attachments as a fundamental human motivation. Psychological Bulletin, 117, 497–529. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.117.3.497

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  2. Beauducel, A., & Herzberg, P. Y. (2006). On the performance of maximum likelihood versus means and variance adjusted weighted least squares estimation in CFA. Structural Equation Modeling, 13, 186–203. doi:10.1207/s15328007sem1302_2

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Bentler, P. M., & Chou, C. H. (1987). Practical issues in structural modeling. Sociological Methods & Research, 16, 78–117.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Bollen, K. A. (1989). Structural equations with latent variables. New York: Wiley.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  5. Brown, A. (2006). Confirmatory factor analysis for applied research. New York, NY: Guilford Press.

    Google Scholar 

  6. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2014). Health, United States, 2014. Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/hus/hus14.pdf#063

  7. Colley, R. C., Garriguet, D., Janssen, I., Craig, C. L., Clarke, J., & Tremblay, M. S. (2011). Physical activity of Canadian adults: Accelerometer results from the 2007 to 2009 Canadian health measures survey. Ottawa, ON: Statistics Canada.

    Google Scholar 

  8. deCharms, R. (1968). Personal causation: The internal affective determinants of behavior. New York, NY: Academic Press.

    Google Scholar 

  9. Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. New York: Plenum.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  10. Dimmock, J., Jackson, B., Podlog, L., & Magaraggia, C. (2013). The effect of variety expectations on interest, enjoyment, and locus of causality in exercise. Motivation & Emotion, 37, 146–153. doi:10.1007/s11031-012-9294-5

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Faul, F., Erdfelder, E., Lang, A. G., & Buchner, A. (2007). G*Power 3: A flexible statistical power analysis program for the social, behavioral, and biomedical sciences. Behavior Research Methods, 39, 175–191.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  12. Finney, S. J., & DiStefano, C. (2006). Non-normal and categorical data in structural equation modeling. In G. R. Hancock & R. O. Mueller (Eds.), Structural equation modeling: A second course (pp. 269–314). Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing Inc.

    Google Scholar 

  13. Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error: Algebra and statistics. Journal of Marketing Research, 18, 39–50. doi:10.2307/3151312

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Fritz, M. S., & MacKinnon, D. P. (2007). Required sample size to detect the mediated effect. Psychological Science, 18, 233–239.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  15. Glaros, N., & Janelle, M. (2001). Varying the mode of cardiovascular exercise to increase adherence. Journal of Sport Behavior, 24, 42–62.

    Google Scholar 

  16. Godin, G. (2011). The Godin-Shephard leisure-time physical activity questionnaire. The Health & Fitness Journal of Canada, 4, 18–22.

    Google Scholar 

  17. Godin, G., & Shephard, R. J. (1985). A simple method to assess exercise behavior in the community. Canadian Journal of Applied Sport Sciences, 10, 141–146.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  18. Hallal, P. C., Andersen, L. B., Bull, F. C., Guthold, R., Haskell, W., Ekelund, U., & Lancet Physical Activity Series Working Group. (2012). Global physical activity levels: surveillance progress, pitfalls, and prospects. Lancet, 380, 247–257.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  19. Hu, L., & Bentler, P. M. (1998). Fit indices in covariance structure analysis: Sensitivity to underparameterized model misspecification. Psychological Methods, 3, 424–453. doi:10.1037/1082-989X.3.4.424

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Hu, L., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 6, 1–55. doi:10.1080/10705519909540118

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Jacobs, D. R., Ainsworth, B. E., Hartman, T. J., & Leon, A. S. (1993). A simultaneous evaluation of 10 commonly used physical activity questionnaires. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 25, 81–91. doi:10.1249/00005768-199301000-00012

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  22. Juvancic-Heltzel, J. A., Glickman, E. L., & Barkley, J. E. (2013). The effect of variety on physical activity: A cross-sectional study. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 27, 244–251. doi:10.1519/JSC.0b013e3182518010

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Kline, R. B. (2005). Principles and practice of structural equation modelling (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford Press.

    Google Scholar 

  24. Little, R. J. A. (1988). A test of missing completely at random for multivariate data with missing values. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 83, 1198–1202. doi:10.1080/01621459.1988.10478722

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Lyubomirsky, S., & Layous, K. (2013). How do simple positive activities increase well-being? Current Directions in Psychological Science, 22, 57–62. doi:10.1177/0963721412469809

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Marsh, H. W., Hau, K., & Wen, Z. (2004). In search of golden rules: Comments on hypothesis-testing approaches to seeing cut-off values for fit indexes and dangers in overgeneralizing Hu and Bentler’s (1999) findings. Structural Equation Modeling, 11, 320–341. doi:10.1207/s15328007sem1103_2

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Mâsse, L. C., Nigg, C. R., Basen-Engquist, K., & Atienza, A. A. (2011). Understanding the mechanism of physical activity behavior change: Challenges and a call for action. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 12, 1–6. doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2010.07.011

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Physical Activity Guidelines Advisory Committee. (2008). Physical activity guidelines advisory committee report. Washington DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

    Google Scholar 

  29. Preacher, K. J., & Hayes, A. F. (2008). Asymptotic and resampling strategies for assessing and comparing indirect effects in multiple mediator models. Behavior Research Methods, 40, 879–891. doi:10.3758/BRM.40.3.879

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  30. Rothman, A. J. (2004). “Is there nothing more practical than a good theory?: Why innovations and advances in health behavior change will arise is interventions are used to test and refine theory. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 1, 1–7. doi:10.1186/1479-5868-1-11

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. Rucker, D. D., Preacher, K. J., Tormala, Z. L., & Petty, R. E. (2011). Mediation analysis in social psychology: Current practices and new recommendations. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 5, 359–371. doi:10.1111/j.1751-9004.2011.00355.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2002). An overview of self-determination theory. In E. L. Deci & R. M. Ryan (Eds.), Handbook of self-determination research (pp. 3–33). Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press.

    Google Scholar 

  33. Shadish, W. R., Cook, T. D., & Campbell, D. T. (2002). Experimental and quasi-experimental designs for generalized causal inference. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.

    Google Scholar 

  34. Sheldon, K. M. (2011). Integrating behavioral-motive and experiential-requirement perspectives on psychological needs: A two process model. Psychological Review, 118, 552–569. doi:10.1037/a0024758

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  35. Sheldon, K. M., & Lyubomirsky, S. (2012). The challenge of staying happier: Testing the Hedonic Adaptation Prevention Model. Personality & Social Psychological Bulletin, 38, 670–680. doi:10.1177/0146167212436400

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. Shrout, P. E., & Bolger, N. (2002). Mediation in experimental and nonexperimental studies: New procedures and recommendations. Psychological Methods, 7, 422–445.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  37. Smith, L. L. (1992). Causes of delayed onset muscle soreness and the impact on athletic performance: A review. Journal of Applied Sport Science Research, 6, 135–141.

    Google Scholar 

  38. Sparkes, R., & Behm, D. G. (2010). Training adaptations associated with an 8-week instability resistance training program with recreationally active individuals. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 24, 1931–1941.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  39. Sylvester, B. D., Standage, M., Ark, T., Sweet, S. N., Crocker, P. R. E., Zumbo, B. D., & Beauchamp, M. R. (2014a). Is variety a spice of (an active) life?: Perceived variety, exercise behavior, and the mediating role of autonomous motivation. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 36, 516–527. doi:10.1123/jsep.2014-0102

    Article  Google Scholar 

  40. Sylvester, B. D., Standage, M., Dowd, A. J., Martin, L. J., Sweet, S. N., & Beauchamp, M. R. (2014b). Perceived variety, psychological needs satisfaction, and exercise-related well-being. Psychology & Health, 29, 1044–1061. doi:10.1080/08870446.2014.907900

    Article  Google Scholar 

  41. Teixeira, P. J., Carraça, E. V., Markland, D., Silva, M. N., & Ryan, R. M. (2012). Exercise, physical activity, and self-determination theory: A systematic review. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition & Physical Activity, 9, 78. doi:10.1186/1479-5868-9-78

    Article  Google Scholar 

  42. Unnebrink, K., & Windeler, J. (2001). Intention-to-treat: Methods for dealing with missing values in clinical trials of progressively deteriorating diseases. Statistics in Medicine, 20, 3931–3946. doi:10.1002/sim.1149

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  43. Warburton, D. E. R., Jamnik, V. K., Bredin, S. S. D., & Gledhill, N. (2011). The physical activity readiness questionnaire for everyone (PAR-Q+) and electronic physical activity readiness medical examination (ePARmed- X+). Health & Fitness Journal of Canada, 4, 3–17.

    Google Scholar 

  44. White, R. W. (1959). Motivation reconsidered: The concept of competence. Psychological Review, 66, 297–333. doi:10.1037/h0040934

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  45. Wilcox, S., King, A. C., Brassignton, G. S., & Ahn, D. K. (1999). Physical activity preferences of middle-aged and older adults: A community analysis. Journal of Aging & Physical Activity, 7, 386–399.

    Google Scholar 

  46. Wilson, P. M., Rogers, W. T., Rodgers, W. M., & Wild, T. C. (2006). The psychological need satisfaction in exercise scale. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 28, 231–251.

    Google Scholar 

  47. Wolf, E. J., Harrington, K. M., Clark, S. L., & Miller, M. W. (2013). Sample size requirements for structural equation models an evaluation of power, bias, and solution propriety. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 73, 913–934. doi:10.1177/0013164413495237

    Article  Google Scholar 

  48. World Health Organization. (2007). A guide for population-based approaches to increasing levels of physical activity: Implementation of the WHO global strategy on diet, physical activity and health. Geneva: World Health Organization.

    Google Scholar 

  49. World Health Organization. (2009). Global health risks: Mortality and burden of disease attributable to selected major risks. Retrieved from: http://www.who.int/healthinfo/global_burden_disease/GlobalHealthRisks_report_full.pdf

  50. Zumbo, B. D., Gadermann, A. M., & Zeisser, C. (2007). Ordinal versions of coefficients alpha and theta for likert rating scales. Journal of Modern Applied Statistical Methods, 6, 21–29.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

This research was supported by a graduate scholarship awarded to Ben Sylvester by the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada, as well as a career investigator award from the Michael Smith Foundation for Health Research awarded to Mark Beauchamp.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Benjamin D. Sylvester.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

Benjamin D. Sylvester, Martyn Standage, Desmond McEwan, Svenja A. Wolf, David R. Lubans, Narelle Eather, Megan Kaulius, Geralyn R. Ruissen, Peter R. E. Crocker, Bruno D. Zumbo, Mark R. Beauchamp declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Human and animal rights and Informed consent

All procedures followed were in accordance with ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional and national) and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2000. Informed consent was obtained from all participants for being included in the study.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Sylvester, B.D., Standage, M., McEwan, D. et al. Variety support and exercise adherence behavior: experimental and mediating effects. J Behav Med 39, 214–224 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10865-015-9688-4

Download citation

Keywords

  • Diverse
  • Physical activity
  • Resistance training
  • Mediation
  • Perceived variety