There has been little research examining the psychological antecedents of safety-oriented behavior aimed at reducing myopia risk. This study utilizes self-determination theory (SDT) and the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to understand the role of motivational and social-cognitive factors on individuals’ near-work behavior. Adopting a prospective design, undergraduate students (n = 107) completed an initial questionnaire based on SDT in week 1, a second questionnaire containing measures of TPB variables in week 2, and objective measures of reading distance and visual acuity in week 6. The data were analyzed by variance-based structural equation modeling. The results showed that perceived autonomy support and autonomous motivation from SDT significantly predicted attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control from the TPB. These social-cognitive factors were significantly associated with intention and intention significantly predicted reading distance. The relationships in the model held when controlling for visual acuity. In conclusion, the integrated model of SDT and the TPB may help explain myopia-preventive behaviors.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Autonomous motivation was responsible for 72.19, 65.52, and 42.08 % of the total explained variance of attitude, subjective norm, and PBC, respectively.
Attitude, subjective norm, and PBC were responsible for explaining 13.87, 49.05, and 15.73 %, respectively, of the total variance of intention.
Intention was responsible for 45.49 % of the total explained variance of reading distance.
Abrams, D., Ando, K., & Hinkle, S. (1998). Psychological attachment to the group: Cross-cultural differences in organizational identification and subjective norms as predictors of workers’ turnover intentions. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 24, 1027–1039.
Ajzen, I. (1985). From intentions to actions: A theory of planned behavior. In J. Kuhl & J. Beckmann (Eds.), From intentions to actions: A theory of planned behavior (pp. 11–39). Berlin: Springer.
Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50, 179–211.
Ajzen, I. (2002, January, 2006). Constructing a TPB questionnaire: Conceptual and methodological considerations. Retrieved 15 June, 2010, from University of Massachusetts Web site, http://people.umass.edu/aizen/tpb.html
Aroian, L. A. (1947). The probability function of the product of two normally distributed variables. The Annals of Mathematical Statistics, 18, 265–271.
Bagozzi, R. P. (1982). A field investigation of causal relations among cognitions, affect, intentions, and behavior. Journal of Marketing Research, 19, 562–583.
Budd, R. J., & Spencer, C. P. (1986). Lay theories of behavioral intention—a source of response bias in the theory of reasoned action. British Journal of Social Psychology, 25, 109–117.
Chan, D. K. C., & Hagger, M. S. (2012a). Autonomous forms of motivation underpinning injury prevention and rehabilitation among police officers: An application of the trans-contextual model. Motivation and Emotion, 36, 349–364.
Chan, D. K. C., & Hagger, M. S. (2012b). Theoretical integration and the psychology of sport injury prevention. Sports Medicine, 42, 725–732.
Chan, D. K. C., & Hagger, M. S. (2012c). Self-determined forms of motivation predict sport injury prevention and rehabilitation intentions. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 15, 398–406.
Chan, D. K. C., Hagger, M. S., & Spray, C. M. (2011). Treatment motivation for rehabilitation after a sport injury: Application of the trans-contextual model. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 12, 83–92.
Chan, D. K., Lonsdale, C., Ho, P. Y., Yung, P. S. H., & Chan, K. M. (2009). Patient motivation and adherence to post-surgery rehabilitation exercise recommendations: The influence of physiotherapists’ autonomy supportive behaviors. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 90, 1977–1982.
Chen, J. C., Schmid, K. L., & Brown, B. (2003). The autonomic control of accommodation and implications for human myopia development: A review. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics, 23, 401–422.
Ciuffreda, K. J., & Vasudevan, B. (2008). Nearwork-induced transient myopia (NITM) and permanent myopia—is there a link? Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics, 28, 103–114.
Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. New York: Plenum.
Dombrowski, S. U., Sniehotta, F. F., Avenell, A., Johnston, M., MacLennan, G., & Araújo-Soaresb, V. (2011). Identifying active ingredients in complex behavioural interventions for obese adults with obesity-related co-morbidities or additional risk factors for co-morbidities: A systematic review. Health Psychology Review, 6, 7–32.
Doty, D. H., & Glick, W. H. (1998). Common methods bias: Does common methods variance really bias results? Organizational Research Methods, 1, 374–406.
Ferris, F. L., & Bailey, I. (1996). Standardizing the measurement of visual acuity for clinical research studies—guidelines from the eye care technology forum. Ophthalmology, 103, 181–182.
Fredrick, D. R. (2002). Myopia. BMJ, 324, 1195–1199.
Fuligni, A. J. (1998). Authority, autonomy, and parent-adolescent conflict and cohesion: A study of adolescents from Mexican, Chinese, Filipino, and European backgrounds. Developmental Psychology, 34, 782–792.
Hagger, M. S. (2009). Theoretical integration in health psychology: Unifying ideas and complementary explanations. British Journal of Health Psychology, 14, 189–194.
Hagger, M. S., & Chatzisarantis, N. L. D. (2009). Integrating the theory of planned behaviour and self-determination theory in health behaviour: A meta-analysis. British Journal of Health Psychology, 14, 275–302.
Hagger, M. S., Chatzisarantis, N. L. D., Barkoukis, V., John, C. K., Hein, V., Pihu, M., et al. (2007). Cross-cultural generalizability of the theory of planned behavior among young people in a physical activity context. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 29, 2–20.
Hagger, M. S., Chatzisarantis, N. L. D., & Biddle, S. J. H. (2002a). The influence of autonomous and controlling motives on physical activity intentions within the theory of planned behaviour. British Journal of Health Psychology, 7, 283–297.
Hagger, M. S., Chatzisarantis, N. L. D., & Biddle, S. J. H. (2002b). A meta-analytic review of the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior in physical activity: Predictive validity and the contribution of additional variables. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 24, 3–32.
Hagger, M. S., Chatzisarantis, N. L. D., & Harris, J. (2006). The process by which relative autonomous motivation affects intentional behavior: Comparing effects across dieting and exercise behaviors. Motivation and Emotion, 30, 307–321.
Hagger, M. S., Lonsdale, A., & Chatzisarantis, N. L. D. (2012a). A theory-based intervention to reduce alcohol drinking in excess of guideline limits among undergraduate students. British Journal of Health Psychology, 17, 18–43.
Hagger, M. S., Lonsdale, A. J., Hein, V., Koka, A., Lintunen, T., Pasi, H., et al. (2012b). Predicting alcohol consumption and binge drinking in company employees: An application of planned behaviour and self-determination theories. British Journal of Health Psychology, 17, 379–407.
Halvari, A. E. M., Halvari, H., Bjornebekk, G., & Deci, E. L. (2010). Motivation and anxiety for dental treatment: Testing a self-determination theory model of oral self-care behaviour and dental clinic attendance. Motivation and Emotion, 34, 15–33.
Hambleton, R. K. (2005). Issues, designs, and technical guidelines for adapting tests into multiple languages and cultures. In R. K. Hambleton, P. Merenda, & C. Spielberger (Eds.), Adapting educational and psychological tests for cross-cultural assessment (pp. 3–38). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Hardeman, W., Johnston, M., Johnston, D. W., Bonetti, D., Wareham, N. J., & Kinmonth, A. L. (2002). Application of the theory of planned behaviour in behaviour change interventions: A systematic review. Psychology and Health, 17, 123–158.
Hepsen, I. F., Evereklioglu, C., & Bayramlar, H. (2001). The effect of reading and near-work on the development of myopia in emmetropic boys: A prospective, controlled, three-year follow-up study. Vision Research, 41, 2511–2520.
Ip, J. M., Saw, S.-M., Rose, K. A., Morgan, I. G., Kifley, A., Wang, J. J., et al. (2008). Role of near work in myopia: Findings in a sample of Australian school children. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 49, 2903–2910.
Karpinski, A., & Steinman, R. B. (2006). The Single Category Implicit Association Test as a measure of implicit social cognition. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 91, 16–32.
Keatley, D., Clarke, D. D., & Hagger, M. S. (2012a). Investigating the predictive validity of implicit and explicit measures of motivation in problem-solving behavioural tasks. British Journal of Social Psychology, Advanced online publication.
Keatley, D., Clarke, D. D., & Hagger, M. S. (2012b). Investigating the predictive validity of implicit and explicit measures of motivation on condom use, physical activity and healthy eating. Psychology and Health, 27, 550–569.
Keatley, D., Clarke, D. D., & Hagger, M. S. (2012c). The predictive validity of implicit measures of self-determined motivation across health-related behaviours. British Journal of Health Psychology, 18, 2–17.
Keeffe, J. E., Konyama, K., & Taylor, H. R. (2002). Vision impairment in the Pacific region. British Journal of Ophthalmology, 86, 605–610.
Kim, M. Ä., Klingle, R. S., Sharkey, W. F., Park, H. S., Smith, D. H., & Cai, D. (2000). A test of a cultural model of patients’ motivation for verbal communication in patient, Äêdoctor interactions. Communication Monographs, 67, 262–283.
Kor, K., & Mullan, B. A. (2011). Sleep hygiene behaviours: An application of the theory of planned behaviour and the investigation of perceived autonomy support, past behaviour and response inhibition. Psychology and Health, 26, 1208–1224.
Lai, L. F. (2002). Survey of the present condition and the influencing factors about young children’s eyesight. Medical Journal of Trauma and Disibility, 10, 14–18.
Levesque, C. S., Williams, G. C., Elliot, D., Pickering, M. A., Bodenhamer, B., & Finley, P. J. (2007). Validating the theoretical structure of the Treatment Self-Regulation Questionnaire (TSRQ) across three different health behaviors. Health Education Research, 22, 691–702.
Matsumura, H., & Hirai, H. (1999). Prevalence of myopia and refractive changes in students from 3 to 17 years of age. Survey of Ophthalmology, 44, S109–S115.
McEachan, R. R. C., Conner, M. T., Taylor, N., & Lawton, R. J. (2011). Prospective prediction of health-related behaviors with the theory of planned behavior: A meta-analysis. Health Psychology Review, 5, 97–144.
Michie, S., & Johnston, M. (2012). Theories and techniques of behaviour change: Developing a cumulative science of behaviour change. Health Psychology Review, 6, 1–6.
Morgan, I. G. (2003). The biological basis of myopic refractive error. Clinical and Experimental Optometry, 86, 276–288.
Pauwels, P., Patterson, P. G., De Ruyter, K., & Wetzels, M. (2009). The propensity to continue internationalization: A study of entrepreneurial decision-making in Australian service firms. Advances in International Marketing, 20, 11–36.
Pelli, D. G., Robson, J. G., & Wilkins, A. J. (1988). The design of a new letter chart for measuring contrast sensitivity. Clinical Vision Sciences, 2, 187–199.
Preacher, K. J., & Hayes, A. F. (2008). Asymptotic and resampling strategies for assessing and comparing indirect effects in multiple mediator models. Behavior Research Methods, 40, 879–891.
Reeve, J., & Jang, H. S. (2006). What teachers say and do to support students’ autonomy during a learning activity. Journal of Educational Psychology, 98, 209–218.
Reinartz, W. J., Haenlein, M., & Henseler, J. (2009). An empirical comparison of the efficacy of covariance-based and variance-based SEM. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 26, 332–344.
Resnikoff, S., Pascolinia, D., Mariott, S. P., & Pokharel, G. P. (2008). Global magnitude of visual impairment caused by uncorrected refractive errors in 2004. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 86, 63–70.
Ricci, F., Cedrone, C., & Cerulli, L. (1998). Standardized measurement of visual acuity. Ophthalmic Epidemiology, 5, 41–53.
Ringle, C. M., Wende, S., & Will, A. (2005). SmartPLS 2.0 (M3) Beta. Hamburg.
Rosenfield, M., & Gilmartin, B. (1998). Myopia and nearwork (12th ed.). Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.
Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations: Classic definitions and new directions. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25, 54–67.
Sang, L. L., Guo, X. H., Xu, L., Liu, L. J., Duan, J. L., & Wang, W. (2007). How the eye care habits and vision burden affect myopia among primary and high school students. Academic Journal of Guangzhou Medical College, 35, 27–30.
Saw, S. M. (2003). A synopsis of the prevalence rates and environmental risk factors for myopia. Clinical and Experimental Optometry, 86, 289–294.
Saw, S. M., Katz, J., Schein, O. D., Chew, S. J., & Chan, T. K. (1996). Epidemiology of myopia. Epidemiologic Reviews, 18, 175–187.
Schouten, B. C., & Meeuwesen, L. (2006). Cultural differences in medical communication: A review of the literature. Patient Education and Counseling, 64, 21–34.
Silva, M. N., Vieira, P. N., Coutinho, S. R., Minderico, C. S., Matos, M. G., Sardinha, L. B., et al. (2010). Using self-determination theory to promote physical activity and weight control: A randomized controlled trial in women. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 33, 110–122.
Stavri, Z., & Michie, S. (2012). Classification systems in behavioural science: Current systems and lessons from the natural, medical and social sciences. Health Psychology Review, 6, 113–140.
Tenenhaus, M., Vinzi, V. E., Chatelin, Y. M., & Lauro, C. (2005). PLS path modeling. Computational Statistics & Data Analysis, 48, 159–205.
Williams, G. C., Grow, V. M., Freedman, Z. R., Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (1996). Motivational predictors of weight loss and weight-loss maintenance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 115–126.
Williams, G. C., Lynch, M., & Glasgow, R. E. (2007). Computer-assisted intervention improves patient-centered diabetes care by increasing autonomy support. Health Psychology, 26, 728–734.
Williams, G. C., McGregor, H., Sharp, D., Kouides, R. W., Levesque, C. S., Ryan, R. M., et al. (2006). A self-determination multiple risk intervention trial to improve smokers’ health. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 21, 1288–1294.
Zhang, H. L., Yan, L. Q., Huang, H. P., Zhang, Y. F., & Huang, J. (2011). Effect of eye health care on preschool children’s vision: A “hospital-kindergarten-family” model. Chinese Journal of School Health, 32, 689–690.
Zhao, X. S., Lynch, J. G., & Chen, Q. M. (2010). Reconsidering Baron and Kenny: Myths and truths about mediation analysis. Journal of Consumer Research, 37, 197–206.
This research was supported by an International Research Scholarship awarded by the University of Nottingham to Derwin K.C. Chan. The authors are grateful to Dr. Andrew Astle from University of Nottingham for his professional advices on the use of optometric assessments in this study.
About this article
Cite this article
Chan, D.K., Fung, Y., Xing, S. et al. Myopia prevention, near work, and visual acuity of college students: integrating the theory of planned behavior and self-determination theory. J Behav Med 37, 369–380 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10865-013-9494-9
- Autonomy support
- Reading behavior