Journal of Behavioral Medicine

, Volume 35, Issue 4, pp 387–392 | Cite as

Multiple plans and memory performance: results of a randomized controlled trial targeting fruit and vegetable intake

  • Amelie U. Wiedemann
  • Sonia Lippke
  • Ralf Schwarzer


To test whether forming and memorizing more action plans has larger effects than generating fewer plans. In a randomized controlled trial with five intervention groups and one control group, 478 participants were asked to form one, two, three, four, or five action plans, or to complete questionnaires only (control group). One week later, behavior change was measured and participants of the intervention groups completed a free recall task. Outcome measures are daily intake of fruit and vegetables as well as recall of plans. Fruit and vegetable intake increased with higher numbers of plans, and was significantly larger in groups that formed four (d = 0.36) or five plans (d = 0.48) as compared to controls. The sum of recalled plans reflected the number of generated plans, but was unrelated to behavior change. Generating multiple plans benefits behavior change, but to be implemented they need not be recalled.


Action plan Implementation intention Randomized controlled trial Healthy nutrition Health behavior change 

Supplementary material

10865_2011_9364_MOESM1_ESM.doc (50 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 51 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Amelie U. Wiedemann
    • 1
  • Sonia Lippke
    • 2
    • 3
  • Ralf Schwarzer
    • 4
  1. 1.Institute of Medical Psychology, Charité—Universitaetsmedizin BerlinBerlinGermany
  2. 2.Jacobs Center on Lifelong Learning and Institutional DevelopmentJacobs University BremenBremenGermany
  3. 3.Department of Health PromotionUniversiteit MaastrichtMaastrichtThe Netherlands
  4. 4.Department of Health PsychologyFreie Universitaet Berlin and Warsaw School of Social Sciences and HumanitiesBerlinGermany

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