The Contribution of Pain-Related Anxiety to Disability from Headache
- 156 Downloads
Disability associated with headache cannot be fully accounted for by pain intensity and headache frequency. As such, a variety of cognitive and affective factors have been identified to help explain headache-related disability beyond that accounted for by pain levels. Pain-related anxiety, a multidimensional construct, also has been found to contribute to disability in headache sufferers. What is not known is whether pain-related anxiety is unique in contributing to disability beyond the role of headache-specific cognitive factors and emotional distress. The present study examines the influence of pain-related anxiety on disability, after controlling for pain, cognitive (self-efficacy and locus of control), and affective factors (emotional distress) in a sample of 96 primary headache sufferers. Pain, headache-related control beliefs, and emotional distress accounted for 32%, with locus of control related to health care professionals contributing unique variance. In the full model, with the addition of pain-related anxiety, only pain-related anxiety was a unique predictor of disability. These findings suggest that pain-related anxiety may have a unique and important role in contributing to disability in headache sufferers.
KEY WORDS:headache disability pain anxiety self-efficacy locus of control
- Barlow, D. H. (2001). Anxiety and Its Disorders: The Nature and Treatment of Anxiety and Panic (2nd ed.). New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- International Headache Society Classification Committee. (1988). Classification and diagnostic criteria for headache disorders, cranial neuralgias and facial pain. Headache Classification Committee of the International Headache Society. Cephalalgia 8(Suppl. 7): 1–96.Google Scholar
- Olesen, J., and Edvinsson, L. (1988). Basic Mechanisms of Headache. Elsevier, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
- Stewart, A. L., Greenfield, S., Hays, R. D., Wells, K., Rogers, W. H., Berry, S. D., McGlynn, E. A., and Ware, J. E., Jr. (1989). Functional status and well-being of patients with chronic conditions. Results from the Medical Outcomes Study [published erratum appears in JAMA 1989 Nov. 10;262(18):2542]. JAMA 262(7): 907–913.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar