Exploring Procedural Manipulations to Enhance Student Performance on SAFMEDS in Undergraduate Introduction to Behavior Analysis Courses


Research into the fluency-building tactic named Say All Fast Minute Every Day Shuffled (SAFMEDS) has implications for instruction at all academic levels. Several researchers have studied the effects of SAFMEDS in undergraduate courses; however, not all of the salient variables, or the relationships among variables, have been fully analyzed. The numerous procedural variations may pose specific challenges for college instructors who wish to implement SAFMEDS in their course design or for students who are attempting to use SAFMEDS on their own. We collected behavioral data across four semesters of undergraduate introductory behavior analysis courses. The effects of two procedural manipulations were evaluated in relation to undergraduate students’ performance frequencies on weekly checkouts with two or four decks of see term/say definition SAFMEDS. The authors describe how SAFMEDS were implemented and modified over the course of four semesters of instruction. SAFMEDS’ procedures were modified each semester based on student outcomes in the prior semester in an effort to improve our student outcomes and to assist other course instructors who might wish to utilize SAFMEDS in their university courses. An overview of the decision-making process and student outcomes allows for the authors to make recommendations for course instructors who employ SAFMEDS in their courses and suggestions for future research to improve our understanding of how SAFMEDS affect student performance.

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    See Cihon et al. (2017) for a detailed description of the course components.

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    SAFMEDS cards are available by contacting the second author.


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The authors would like to thank Owen Adams, Rob J. Goodhue, Michaela Smith, and the members of the Teaching Science Lab at the University of North Texas for their assistance with the data collected for this manuscript.

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Correspondence to Traci M. Cihon.

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Urbina, T., Cihon, T.M. & Baltazar, M. Exploring Procedural Manipulations to Enhance Student Performance on SAFMEDS in Undergraduate Introduction to Behavior Analysis Courses. J Behav Educ 30, 130–148 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10864-019-09359-0

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  • College teaching
  • Precision teaching
  • Undergraduates