Evaluating the Effectiveness of a Teaching Package Utilizing Behavioral Skills Training and In Situ Training to Teach Gun Safety Skills in a Preschool Classroom

Abstract

There are a number of different safety threats that children face in their lives. One infrequent, but highly dangerous situation a child can face is finding a firearm. Hundreds of children are injured or killed by firearms each year. Fortunately, behavioral skills training (BST) and in situ training (IST) are effective approaches for teaching a number of different skills, including safety skills. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a teaching package for preschool teachers to learn to conduct BST to teach safety skills. Following teacher-implemented BST, the experimenter completed in situ training and supplemental instructions. A multiple baseline across subjects design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of this teaching package implemented by the teacher and experimenter with five preschoolers. Five children demonstrated the skills following IST and additional reinforcement or time out. The use of additional reinforcement, as well as treatment fidelity are discussed.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1

References

  1. Common Sense About Kids and Guns. (n.d.). Fact file. Retrieved January 26, 2010, from http://www.kidsandguns.org.

  2. Dancho, K., Thompson, R., & Rhoades, M. (2008). Teaching preschool children to avoid poison hazards. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 41(2), 267–271.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  3. Eber, G. B., Annest, J. L., Mercy, J. A., & Ryan, G. W. (2004). Nonfatal and fatal firearm-related injuries among children aged 14 years and younger: United States, 1993–2000. Pediatrics, 113(6), 1686–1692.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  4. Gatheridge, B. J., Miltenberger, R. G., Huneke, D. F., Satterlund, M. J., Mattern, A. R., Johnson, B. M., & Flessner, C. A. (2004). Comparison of two programs to teach firearm injury prevention skills to 6- and 7- year-old children. Pediatrics, 114, 294–299.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Gross, A., Miltenberger, R., Knudson, P., Bosch, A., & Brower-Breitwieser, C. (2007). Preliminary evaluation of a parent training program to prevent gun play. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 40, 691–695.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  6. Hardy, M. S., Armstrong, F. D., Martin, B. L., & Strawn, K. N. (1996). A firearm safety program for children: They just can’t say no. Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 17, 216–221.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Himle, M., & Miltenberger, R. (2004). Preventing unintentional firearm injury in children: The need for behavioral skills training. Education & Treatment of Children, 27, 161–177.

    Google Scholar 

  8. Himle, M. B., Miltenberger, R. G., Flessner, C., & Gatheridge, B. (2004a). Teaching safety skills to children to prevent gun play. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 37, 1–9.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  9. Himle, M., Miltenberger, R., Gatheridge, B., & Flessner, C. (2004b). An evaluation of two procedures for training skills to prevent gun play in children. Pediatrics, 113, 70–77.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  10. Johnson, B. M., Miltenberger, R. G., Egemo-Helm, K., Jostad, C. J., Flessner, C., & Gatheridge, B. (2005). Evaluation of behavioral skills training for teaching abduction-prevention skills to young children. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 38, 67–78.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  11. Johnson, B. M., Miltenberger, R. G., Knudson, P., Egemo-Helm, K., Kelso, P., Jostad, C., & Langley, L. (2006). A preliminary evaluation of two behavioral skills training procedures for teaching abduction prevention skills to school-age children. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 39, 25–34.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  12. Jostad, C. M., Miltenberger, R. G., Kelso, P., & Knudson, P. (2008). Peer tutoring to prevent gun play: Acquisition, generalization, and maintenance of safety skills. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 41, 117–123.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  13. Knight-Bohnhoff, K., & Harris, M. B. (1998). Parent’s behaviors, knowledge, and beliefs related to unintentional firearm injuries among children and youth in the southwest. Journal of Pediatric Healthcare, 12, 139–146.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Lumley, V. A., Miltenberger, R. G., Long, E. S., Rapp, J. T., & Roberts, J. A. (1998). Evaluation of a sexual abuse prevention program for adults with mental retardation. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 31, 91–101.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  15. Miltenberger, R. G., Flessner, C., Gatheridge, B., Johnson, B., Satterlund, M., & Egemo, K. (2004). Evaluation of behavioral skills training procedures to prevent gun play in children. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 37, 513–516.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  16. Miltenberger, R. G., Gatheridge, B. J., Satterlund, M., Egemo-Helm, K. R., Johnson, B. M., Jostad, C., et al. (2005). Teaching safety skills to prevent gun play: An evaluation of in situ training. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 38, 395–398.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  17. Miltenberger, R. G., Roberts, J. A., Ellingson, S., Galensky, T., Rapp, J. T., Long, E. S., & Lumley, V. A. (1999). Training and generalization of sexual abuse prevention skills for women with mental retardation. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 32, 385–388.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  18. Schuster, M. A., Franke, T. M., Bastian, A. M., Sor, S., & Halfon, N. (2000). Firearm storage patterns in U.S. homes with children. American Journal of Public Health, 90(4), 588–594.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  19. Sidman, E. A., Grossman, D. C., Koepsell, T. D., D’Ambrosio, L., Britt, J., Simpson, E. S., et al. (2005). Evaluation of a community-based handgun safe-storage campaign. Pediatrics, 115, e654–e661.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  20. Vacha, E. F., & McLaughlin, T. F. (2004). Risky firearms behavior in low-income families of elementary school children: The impact of poverty, fear of crime, and crime victimization on keeping and storing firearms. Journal of Family Violence, 19(3), 175–184.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Vanselow, N. R., & Hanley, G. P. (2014). An evaluation of computerized behavioral skills training to teach safety skills to young children. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 47, 51–69.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  22. Yeaton, W. H., & Bailey, J. S. (1978). Teaching pedestrian safety skills to young children: An analysis and one-year follow-up. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 11, 315–329.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Raymond G. Miltenberger.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Hanratty, L.A., Miltenberger, R.G. & Florentino, S.R. Evaluating the Effectiveness of a Teaching Package Utilizing Behavioral Skills Training and In Situ Training to Teach Gun Safety Skills in a Preschool Classroom. J Behav Educ 25, 310–323 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10864-016-9248-1

Download citation

Keywords

  • Behavioral skills training
  • Gun safety skills
  • Class-wide approaches