Journal of Behavioral Education

, Volume 17, Issue 1, pp 79–92

Comparing Brief and Extended Wait-Time During Small Group Instruction for Children with Challenging Behavior

Original Paper

DOI: 10.1007/s10864-008-9063-4

Cite this article as:
Tincani, M. & Crozier, S. J Behav Educ (2008) 17: 79. doi:10.1007/s10864-008-9063-4


This preliminary study compared brief (1 s) and extended (4 s) wait-time on response opportunities, academic responses, accuracy, and disruptive behavior of two children with challenging behavior during small group instruction. Brief wait-time increased children’s response opportunities, academic responses, and accuracy in comparison to extended wait-time. Though variable, brief wait-time also decreased children’s disruptive behavior. Findings differ from previous research, which found performance improvements with extended wait-time for children with moderate to profound cognitive disabilities. Limitations of the study and future research suggestions are discussed.


Wait-time Teacher pacing Challenging behavior Effective instruction Behavioral disorders 

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Special EducationUniversity of NevadaLas VegasUSA

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