The co-occurrence of lower full-scale intellectual abilities (FSIQ) and academic achievement deficits in children with ADHD is well established; however, the extent to which the relation reflects the influence of a general factor (g) deficiency or deficiencies in one or more specific intellectual abilities remains speculative and was the focus of the current investigation. Twenty-eight boys with ADHD-combined presentation and 26 neurotypical (NT) boys between 8 and 12 years of age were administered the WISC-IV and standardized measures of reading and math. FSIQ and achievement scores in both reading and math were significantly lower for the ADHD relative to the NT group; however, examination of WISC-IV index scores revealed that group level differences in FSIQ resulted from lower scores on two of the four specific intellectual ability indices—Working Memory (WMI) and Verbal Comprehension (VCI). Bias-corrected bootstrapped mediation analyses revealed that both WMI and VCI contributed uniquely to the ADHD-Academic Achievement relation. The contribution of WMI to ADHD-related academic underachievement reflected lower scores on the Letter-Number Sequencing (LNS) but not the Digit Span (DS) subtest. Both LNS and VCI explained ADHD-related differences in reading, whereas LNS alone explained ADHD-related differences in math. Collectively these findings suggest that strengthening deficient higher-level WM abilities, in conjunction with empirically based academic instruction, is needed to improve learning outcomes in children with ADHD.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
The FDI, which included an arithmetic subtest, was discontinued in the WISC-IV and replaced with the Working Memory Index (WMI) to eliminate the potentially biasing effect of arithmetic knowledge on FSIQ.
The working component of WM (i.e., the central executive [CE]) is considered a domain general attentional controller that involves multiple executive processes (e.g., updating, manipulation/dual processing, serial reordering, interference control) responsible for the mental processing of information held temporarily in the phonological and visuospatial short-term memory stores (Baddeley 2012).
A posteriori analyses including PRI and PSI as potential mediators confirmed that neither included significant indirect effects.
Epiphenomena effects reflect a situation in which two variables are correlated and significant mediators when modeled separately, but only one is a true mediator of the relation and the other a correlated process that arises from but does not causally influence the process; cf. Hayes 2018, for an expanded discussion.
Neither Digit Span Forward nor Digit Span Backward served as significant mediators of the ADHD-Academic Achievement relation when examined separately.
Achenbach, T. M., & Rescorla, L. A. (2001). Manual for the ASEBA School-age Forms & Profiles. Burlington: University of Vermont.
Alloway, T. P., & Alloway, R. G. (2010). Investigating the predictive roles of working memory and IQ in academic attainment. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 106(1), 20–29.
American Psychological Association. (2013). The diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-5 (5th ed.). Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Publishing.
Anastopoulos, A. D., Spisto, M. A., & Maher, M. C. (1994). The WISC-III freedom from distractibility factor: Its utility in identifying children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Psychological Assessment, 6(4), 368–371.
Andreou, G., Agapitou, P., & Karapetsas, A. (2005). Verbal skills in children with ADHD. European Journal of Special Needs Education, 20(2), 231–238.
Baddeley, A. (2012). Working memory: Theories, models, and controversies. Annual Review of Psychology, 63, 1–29.
Balint, S., Czobor, P., Komlosi, S., Meszaros, A., Simon, V., & Bitter, I. (2009). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): Gender- and age-related differences in neurocognition. Psychological Medicine, 39(8), 1337–1345.
Barkley, R. A., Fischer, M., Edelbrock, C. S., & Smallish, L. (1990). The adolescent outcome of hyperactive children diagnosed by research criteria: I. An 8-year prospective follow-up study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 29(4), 546–557.
Breslau, J., Miller, E., Breslau, N., Bohnert, K., Lucia, V., & Schweitzer, J. (2009). The impact of early behavior disturbances on academic achievement in high school. Pediatrics, 123(6), 1472–1476.
Briggs, N. E. (2006). Estimation of the standard error and confidence interval of the indirect effect in multiple mediator models. (Doctoral Dissertation), The Ohio University.
Calhoun, S. L., & Mayes, S. D. (2005). Processing speed in children with clinical disorders. Psychology in the Schools, 42(4), 333–343.
Chae, P. K. (1999). Correlation study between WISC-III scores and TOVA performance. Psychology in the Schools, 36(3), 179–185.
Chhabildas, N., Pennington, B. F., & Willcutt, E. G. (2001). A comparison of the neuropsychological profiles of the DSM-IV subtypes of ADHD. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 29(6), 529–540.
Chooi, W.-T., & Thompson, L. A. (2012). Working memory training does not improve intelligence in healthy young adults. Intelligence, 40(6), 531–542.
Corkum, P., McGonnell, M., & Schachar, R. (2010). Factors affecting academic achievement in children with ADHD. Journal of Applied Research on Learning, 3(9), 1–14.
Crosbie, J., & Schachar, R. (2001). Deficient inhibition as a marker for familial ADHD. American Journal of Psychiatry, 158(11), 1884–1890.
Dirlikov, B., Shiels Rosch, K., Crocetti, D., Denckla, M. B., Mahone, E. M., & Mostofsky, S. H. (2015). Distinct frontal lobe morphology in girls and boys with ADHD. Neuroimage Clinical, 7, 222–229.
Doshi, J. A., Hodgkins, P., Kahle, J., Sikirica, V., Cangelosi, M. J., Setyawan, J., … Neumann, P. J. (2012). Economic impact of childhood and adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in the United States. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 51(10), 990-1002.e1002.
DuPaul, G. J., & Stoner, G. (2014). ADHD in the schools: Assessment and intervention strategies. New York: Guilford Publications.
DuPaul, G. J., Gormley, M. J., & Laracy, S. D. (2013). Comorbidity of LD and ADHD: Implications of DSM-5 for assessment and treatment. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 46(1), 43–51.
DuPaul, G. J., Morgan, P. L., Farkas, G., Hillemeier, M. M., & Maczuga, S. (2016). Academic and social functioning associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Latent class analyses of trajectories from kindergarten to fifth grade. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 44(7), 1425–1438.
Ek, U., Westerlund, J., & Fernell, E. (2013). General versus executive cognitive ability in pupils with ADHD and with milder attention problems. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 9, 163–168.
Engle, R. W., Tuholski, S. W., Laughlin, J. E., & Conway, A. R. (1999). Working memory, short-term memory, and general fluid intelligence: A latent-variable approach. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 128, 309–331.
Erskine, H. E., Norman, R. E., Ferrari, A. J., Chan, G. C., Copeland, W. E., Whiteford, H. A., & Scott, J. G. (2016). Long-term outcomes of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and conduct disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 55(10), 841–850.
Fassbender, C., Zhang, H., Buzy, W. M., Cortes, C. R., Mizuiri, D., Beckett, L., & Schweitzer, J. B. (2009). A lack of default network suppression is linked to increased distractibility in ADHD. Brain Research, 1273, 114–128.
Fenollar-Cortés, J., Navarro Soria, I., González Gómez, C., & García-Sevilla, J. (2015). Cognitive profile for children with ADHD by using WISC-IV: Subtype differences? Journal of Psychodidactics, 20(1).
Fergusson, D. M., Lynskey, M. T., & Horwood, L. J. (1997). Attentional difficulties in middle childhood and psychosocial outcomes in young adulthood. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 38(6), 633–644.
Frazier, T. W., Demaree, H. A., & Youngstrom, E. A. (2004). Meta-analysis of intellectual and neuropsychological test performance in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Neuropsychology, 18(3), 543–555.
Frazier, T. W., Youngstrom, E. A., Glutting, J. J., & Watkins, M. W. (2007). ADHD and achievement: Meta-analysis of the child, adolescent, and adult literatures and a concomitant study with college students. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 40(1), 49–65.
Frick, P. J., Kamphaus, R. W., Lahey, B. B., Loeber, R., Christ, M. A. G., Hart, E. L., & Tannenbaum, L. E. (1991). Academic underachievement and the disruptive behavior disorders. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 59(2), 289–294.
Fritz, M. S., & Mackinnon, D. P. (2007). Required sample size to detect the mediated effect. Psychological Science, 18(3), 233–239.
Gadow, K., Sprafkin, J., Salisbury, H., Schneider, J., & Loney, J. (2004). Further validity evidence for the teacher version of the child symptom Inventory-4. School Psychology Quarterly, 19, 50–71.
Gathercole, S. E., Alloway, T. P., Willis, C., & Adams, A.-M. (2006). Working memory in children with reading disabilities. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 93(3), 265–281.
Gaub, M., & Carlson, C. L. (1997). Gender differences in ADHD: A meta-analysis and critical review. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 36(8), 1036–1045.
Gershon, J., & Gershon, J. (2002). A meta-analytic review of gender differences in ADHD. Journal of Attention Disorders, 5(3), 143–154.
Goth-Owens, T. L., Martinez-Torteya, C., Martel, M. M., & Nigg, J. T. (2010). Processing speed weakness in children and adolescents with non-hyperactive but inattentive ADHD (ADD). Child Neuropsychology, 16(6), 577–591.
Gremillion, M. L., & Martel, M. M. (2012). Semantic language as a mechanism explaining the association between ADHD symptoms and reading and mathematics underachievement. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 40(8), 1339–1349.
Hale, J. B., Fiorello, C. A., Kavanagh, J. A., Hoeppner, J. B., & Gaither, R. A. (2001). WISC-III predictors of academic achievement for children with learning disabilities: Are global and factor scores comparable? School Psychology Quarterly, 16(1), 31–55.
Harrison, T. L., Shipstead, Z., Hicks, K. L., Hambrick, D. Z., Redick, T. S., & Engle, R. W. (2013). Working memory training may increase working memory capacity but not fluid intelligence. Psychological Science, 24(12), 2409–2419.
Hayes, A. F. (2009). Beyond baron and Kenny: Statistical mediation analysis in the new millennium. Communication Monographs, 76, 408–420.
Hayes, A. F. (2013). Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: A regression based approach. New York: Guilford Press.
Hayes, A. F. (2014). PROCESS for SPSS New York: 2.12.1. Retrieved from http://www.processmacro.org/index.html. Accessed 2 Nov 2018
Hayes, A. F. (2018). Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: A regression-based approach (Second ed.). New York: Guilford Publications.
Hechtman, L., Swanson, J. M., Sibley, M. H., Stehli, A., Owens, E. B., Mitchell, J. T., … Group, M. T. A. C. (2016). Functional adult outcomes 16 years after childhood diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: MTA results. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 55(11), 945–952 e942.
Hollingshead, A. A. (1975). Four-factor index of social status. New Haven, CT: Yale University.
Holmes, J., Gathercole, S. E., Place, M., Dunning, D. L., Hilton, K. A., & Elliott, J. G. (2009). Working memory deficits can be overcome: Impacts of training and medication on working memory in children with ADHD. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 24(6), 827–836.
Kasper, L. J., Alderson, R. M., & Hudec, K. L. (2012). Moderators of working memory deficits in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): A meta-analytic review. Clinical Psychology Review, 32(7), 605–617.
Kaufman, A. S., & Kaufman, N. L. (2004). Manual for the Kaufman test of educational achievement (Second ed.). Circle Pines: American Guidance Service.
Kaufman, A. S., & Kaufman, N. L. (1998). Manual for the Kaufman test of educational achievement normative update (KTEA-I-NU). Circle Pines: American Guidance Service.
Kaufman, J., Birmaher, B., Brent, D., Rao, U., Flynn, C., Moreci, P., & Ryan, N. (1997). Schedule for affective disorders and schizophrenia for school-age children-present and lifetime version (K-SADS-PL): Initial reliability and validity data. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 980–988.
Kennedy, M. J., Thomas, C. N., Meyer, J. P., Alves, K. D., & Lloyd, J. W. (2013). Using evidence-based multimedia to improve vocabulary performance of adolescents with LD: A UDL approach. Learning Disability Quarterly, 37(2), 71–86.
Kofler, M. J., Rapport, M. D., Bolden, J., Sarver, D. E., & Raiker, J. S. (2010). ADHD and working memory: The impact of central executive deficits and exceeding storage/rehearsal capacity on observed inattentive behavior. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 38(2), 149–161.
Kofler, M. J., Irwin, L. N., Soto, E. F., Groves, N. B., Harmon, S. L., & Sarver, D. E. (2018). Executive functioning heterogeneity in pediatric ADHD. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology.
Konold, T. R., Glutting, J. J., McDermott, P. A., Kush, J. C., & Watkins, M. M. (1999). Structure and diagnostic benefits of a normative subtest taxonomy developed from the WISC-III standardization sample. Journal of School Psychology, 37(1), 29–48.
Kuntsi, J., Eley, T. C., Taylor, A., Hughes, C., Asherson, P., Caspi, A., & Moffitt, T. E. (2004). Co-occurrence of ADHD and low IQ has genetic origins. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 124B, 41–47.
Loe, I. M., & Feldman, H. M. (2007). Academic and educational outcomes of children with ADHD. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 32(6), 643–654.
Lui, M., & Tannock, R. (2007). Working memory and inattentive behaviour in a community sample of children. Behavioral and Brain Functions, 3, 12.
Mariani, M. A., & Barkley, R. A. (1997). Neuropsychological and academic functioning in preschool boys with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Developmental Neuropsychology, 13(1), 111–129.
Martinussen, R., Hayden, J., Hogg-Johnson, S., & Tannock, R. (2005). A meta-analysis of working memory impairments in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 44(4), 377–384.
Mash, E. J., & Barkley, R. A. (2003). Child psychopathology (Vol. 2). New York: Guilford.
Massetti, G. M., Lahey, B. B., Pelham, W. E., Loney, J., Ehrhardt, A., Lee, S. S., & Kipp, H. (2008). Academic achievement over 8 years among children who met modified criteria for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder at 4–6 years of age. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 36(3), 399–410.
Mayes, S. D., & Calhoun, S. L. (2006). WISC-IV and WISC-III profiles in children with ADHD. Journal of Attention Disorders, 9(3), 486–493.
Mayes, S. D., & Calhoun, S. L. (2007). Wechsler intelligence scale for children-third and -fourth edition predictors of academic achievement in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. School Psychology Quarterly, 22(2), 234–249.
Mayes, S. D., Calhoun, S. L., Chase, G. A., Mink, D. M., & Stagg, R. E. (2008). ADHD subtypes and co-occurring anxiety, depression, and oppositional-defiant disorder: Differences in Gordon diagnostic system and wechsler working memory and processing speed index scores. Journal of Attention Disorders, 12(6), 540–550.
Mayes, S. D., Calhoun, S. L., Bixler, E. O., & Zimmerman, D. N. (2009). IQ and neuropsychological predictors of academic achievement. Learning and Individual Differences, 19, 238–241.
McConaughy, S. H., Ivanova, M. Y., Antshel, K., & Eiraldi, R. B. (2009). Standardized observational assessment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder combined and predominantly inattentive subtypes. I. Test session observations. School Psychology Review, 38(1), 45–66.
McConaughy, S. H., Volpe, R. J., Antshel, K. M., Gordon, M., & Eiraldi, R. B. (2011). Academic and social impairments of elementary school children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. School Psychology Review, 40(2), 200–225.
Melby-Lervag, M., & Hulme, C. (2013). Is working memory training effective? A meta-analytic review. Developmental Psychology, 49(2), 270–291.
Molina, B. S., Hinshaw, S. P., Swanson, H. L., Arnold, L. E., Vitiello, B., Jensen, P. S., et al. (2009). The MTA at 8 years: Prospective follow-up of children treated for combined- type ADHD in a multisite study. Journal of American Academy of Child & Adoelscent Psychiatry, 48(5), 484–500.
Naglieri, J. A., Goldstein, S., Delauder, B. Y., & Schwebach, A. (2005). Relationships between the WISC-III and the cognitive assessment system with Conners' rating scales and continuous performance tests. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 20(3), 385–401.
Oberauer, K., Sub, H. M., Schulze, R., Wilhelm, O., & Wittmann, W. W. (2000). Working memory capacity — Facets of a cognitive ability construct. Personality and Individual Differences, 29(6), 1017–1045.
Parkin, J. R., & Beaujean, A. A. (2012). The effects of Wechsler intelligence scale for children—Fourth edition cognitive abilities on math achievement. Journal of School Psychology, 50(1), 113–128.
Perfetti, C. A., Landi, N., & Oakhill, J. (2007). The acquisition of reading comprehension skill. In M. J. Snowling & C. Hulme (Eds.), The science of reading: A handbook (pp. 227–247). Malden: Blackwell Publishing.
Preacher, K. J., & Hayes, A. F. (2008). Asymptotic and resampling strategies for assessing and comparing indirect effects in multiple mediator models. Behavior Research Methods, 40(3), 879–891.
Psychological Corporation. (2002). Wechsler individual achievement test Examiner’s manual (2nd ed.). San Antonio: Psychological Corporation.
Rabiner, D., & Coie, J. D. (2000). Early attention problems and Children's Reading achievement: A longitudinal investigation. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 39(7), 859–867.
Ramos-Olazagasti, M. A., Castellanos, F. X., Mannuzza, S., & Klein, R. G. (2018). Predicting the adult functional outcomes of boys with ADHD 33 years later. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 57(8), 571-582.e571.
Rapport, M. D., Alderson, R. M., Kofler, M. J., Sarver, D. E., Bolden, J., & Sims, V. (2008a). Working memory deficits in boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): The contribution of central executive and subsystem processes. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 36(6), 825–837.
Rapport, M. D., Kofler, M. J., Alderson, R. M., & Raiker, J. I. E. (2008b). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. In M. Hersen & D. Reitman (Eds.), Handbook of psychological assessment, case conceptualization and treatment: Children and adolescents (Vol. 2). Hoboken: Wiley.
Rapport, M. D., Orban, S. A., Kofler, M. J., & Friedman, L. M. (2013). Do programs designed to train working memory, other executive functions, and attention benefit children with ADHD? A meta-analytic review of cognitive, academic, and behavioral outcomes. Clinical Psychology Review, 33(8), 1237–1252.
Rodríguez, C., Torrance, M., Betts, L., Cerezo, R., & García, T. (2017). Effects of ADHD on writing composition product and process in school-age students. Journal of Attention Disorders, 1087054717707048.
Rogers, M., Hwang, H., Toplak, M., Weiss, M., & Tannock, R. (2011). Inattention, working memory, and academic achievement in adolescents referred for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Child Neuropsychology, 17(5), 444–458.
Rucklidge, J. J., & Tannock, R. (2001). Psychiatric, psychosocial, and cognitive functioning of female adolescents with ADHD. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 40(5), 530–540.
Scholtens, S., Rydell, A. M., & Yang-Wallentin, F. (2013). ADHD symptoms, academic achievement, self-perception of academic competence and future orientation: A longitudinal study. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 54(3), 205–212.
Shrout, P. E., & Bolger, N. (2002). Mediation in experimental and non- experimental studies: New procedures and recommendation. Psychological Methods, 7, 422–445.
Solanto, M. V., Gilbert, S. N., Raj, A., Zhu, J., Pope-Boyd, S., Stepak, B., et al. (2007). Neurocognitive functioning in AD/HD, predominantly inattentive and combined subtypes. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 35(5), 729–744.
Swanson, H. L., & Alloway, T. P. (2012). Working memory, learning, and academic achievement. In S. G. K. R. Harris & T. Urdan (Eds.), APA educational psychology handbook (Vol. 1). Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.
Swanson, H. L., & Fung, W. (2016). Working memory components and problem-solving accuracy: Are there multiple pathways? Journal of Educational Psychology, 108(8), 1153–1177.
Swanson, H. L., & Kim, K. (2007). Working memory, short-term memory, and naming speed as predictors of children’s mathematical performance. Intelligence, 35, 151–168.
Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2007). Using multivariate statistics (5th ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon/Pearson Education.
Tarle, S. J., Alderson, R. M., Patros, C. H. G., Lea, S. E., Hudec, K. L., & Arrington, E. F. (2017). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and phonological working memory: Methodological variability affects clinical and experimental performance metrics. Neuropsychology, 31(4), 383–394.
Thaler, N. S., Bello, D. T., & Etcoff, L. M. (2012). WISC-IV profiles are associated with differences in symptomatology and outcome in children with ADHD. Journal of Attention Disorders, 17(4), 291–301.
Titz, C., & Karbach, J. (2014). Working memory and executive functions: Effects of training on academic achievement. Psychological Research, 78(6), 852–868.
Wang, Y., Xu, Q., Li, S., Li, G., Zuo, C., Liao, S., Long, Y., Li, S., & Joshi, R. M. (2018). Gender differences in anomalous subcortical morphology for children with ADHD. Neuroscience Letters, 665, 176–181.
Watkins, M. W., Lei, P.-W., & Canivez, G. L. (2007). Psychometric intelligence and achievement: A cross-lagged panel analysis. Intelligence, 35(1), 59–68.
Wechsler, D. (2003). WISC-IV: Administration and scoring manual. Toronto: Psychological Corporation.
Wechsler, D. (2014). WISC-V: Administration and scoring manual. Toronto: Psychological Corporation.
Weiler, M. D., Bernstein, J. H., Bellinger, D. C., & Waber, D. P. (2000). Processing speed in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, inattentive type. Child Neuropsychology, 6(3), 218–234.
Wells, E. L., Kofler, M. J., Soto, E. F., Schaefer, H. S., & Sarver, D. E. (2018). Assessing working memory in children with ADHD: Minor administration and scoring changes may improve digit span backward’s construct validity. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 72, 166–178.
Weyandt, L. L., & DuPaul, G. J. (2013). Pharmacotherapy. In L. L. Weyandt & G. J. DuPaul (Eds.), College students with ADHD: Current issues and future directions (pp. 75–86). New York: Springer New York.
Willcutt, E. G., Doyle, A. E., Nigg, J. T., Faraone, S. V., & Pennington, B. F. (2005). Validity of the executive function theory of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A meta-analytic review. Biological Psychiatry, 57(11), 1336–1346.
Williamson, D., & Johnston, C. (2015). Gender differences in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A narrative review. Clinical Psychology Review, 40, 15–27.
Conflict of Interest
Catrina A. Calub, Mark D. Rapport, Lauren M. Friedman, and Samuel J. Eckrich declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Institutional Review Board (IRB) approved use of this information for research purposes.
Informed consent and assent was obtained from all parents/legal guardians and children participating in the study, respectively.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Calub, C.A., Rapport, M.D., Friedman, L.M. et al. IQ and Academic Achievement in Children with ADHD: the Differential Effects of Specific Cognitive Functions. J Psychopathol Behav Assess 41, 639–651 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10862-019-09728-z
- Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
- Cognitive ability
- Working memory
- Academic achievement