Advertisement

Responses to Positive Affect in Daily Life: Positive Rumination and Dampening Moderate the Association Between Daily Events and Depressive Symptoms

  • Y. Irina LiEmail author
  • Lisa R. Starr
  • Rachel Hershenberg
Article

Abstract

Depressive rumination has been strongly linked to the development and maintenance of depression; however, less attention has been paid to ruminative processes in response to positive affect, and fewer have examined these processes in daily life. The current study sought to address these gaps by exploring depressive rumination and two forms of responses to positive affect, dampening and positive rumination, under ecologically valid conditions using daily diary methodology. One hundred fifty-seven young adults completed 14-day end-of-day diaries assessing positive affect and depressive symptoms in relation to depressive rumination, responses to positive affect, and daily positive and negative events. Daily depressive rumination predicted stronger associations between negative events and daily depressive symptoms. Higher daily dampening was associated with higher daily depressive symptoms and decreased positive affect and predicted lower associations between daily positive events and improvements in mood (including reduced daily positive affect and increased daily depressive symptoms). Higher daily positive rumination was negatively associated with daily depressive symptoms and interacted with daily positive events such that positive rumination had a greater impact on depressed mood on days when positive experiences were low. Results indicate that both depressive rumination and responses to positive affect play a role in influencing daily mood and depressive symptoms.

Keywords

Depression Positive affect Emotion regulation Positive rumination Dampening Daily diary 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We would like to thank Fanny Mlawer and Christopher Anazalone for their assistance with data collection, and Catherine Glenn for her comments on an earlier draft of this manuscript. Portions of these findings were presented at the 2015 Annual Convention of the Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies in Chicago, IL.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Y. Irina Li, Lisa R. Starr, and Rachel Hershenberg declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Experiment Participants

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/ or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Funding

This research was supported by funds from the University of Rochester.

References

  1. Aiken, L. S., West, S. G., & Reno, R. R. (1991). Multiple regression: testing and interpreting interactions: Sage.Google Scholar
  2. Aldao, A., & Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2012). When are adaptive strategies most predictive of psychopathology? Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 121(1), 276.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Antony, M. M., Bieling, P. J., Cox, B. J., Enns, M. W., & Swinson, R. P. (1998). Psychometric properties of the 42-item and 21-item versions of the depression anxiety stress scales in clinical groups and a community sample. Psychological Assessment, 10(2), 176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Armey, M. F., Fresco, D. M., Moore, M. T., Mennin, D. S., Turk, C. L., Heimberg, R. G., & Alloy, L. B. (2009). Brooding and pondering: isolating the active ingredients of depressive rumination with exploratory factor analysis and structural equation modeling. Assessment doi. doi: 10.1177/1073191109340388.Google Scholar
  5. Association, A. P. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: Washington. DC: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
  6. Baker, J. P., & Berenbaum, H. (2007). Emotional approach and problem-focused coping: a comparison of potentially adaptive strategies. Cognition and Emotion, 21(1), 95–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Baskin-Sommers, A. R., & Foti, D. (2015). Abnormal reward functioning across substance use disorders and major depressive disorder: considering reward as a transdiagnostic mechanism. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 98(2), 227–239.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Beblo, T., Fernando, S., Klocke, S., Griepenstroh, J., Aschenbrenner, S., & Driessen, M. (2012). Increased suppression of negative and positive emotions in major depression. Journal of Affective Disorders, 141(2), 474–479.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Bijttebier, P., Raes, F., Vasey, M. W., & Feldman, G. C. (2012). Responses to positive affect predict mood symptoms in children under conditions of stress: a prospective study. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 40(3), 381–389.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Bolger, N., DeLongis, A., Kessler, R. C., & Schilling, E. A. (1989). Effects of daily stress on negative mood. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57(5), 808.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Bolger, N., Davis, A., & Rafaeli, E. (2003). Diary methods: capturing life as it is lived. Annual Review of Psychology, 54(1), 579–616.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Bolier, L., Haverman, M., Westerhof, G. J., Riper, H., Smit, F., & Bohlmeijer, E. (2013). Positive psychology interventions: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled studies. BMC Public Health, 13(1), 1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Brinker, J. K., & Dozois, D. J. (2009). Ruminative thought style and depressed mood. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 65(1), 1–19.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Brown, T. A., Chorpita, B. F., Korotitsch, W., & Barlow, D. H. (1997). Psychometric properties of the depression anxiety stress scales (DASS) in clinical samples. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 35(1), 79–89.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Bryant, F. (2003). Savoring beliefs inventory (SBI): a scale for measuring beliefs about savouring. Journal of Mental Health, 12(2), 175–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Burke, T. A., Stange, J. P., Hamilton, J. L., Cohen, J. N., O'Garro-Moore, J., Daryanani, I., et al. (2015). Cognitive and emotion-regulatory mediators of the relationship between behavioral approach system sensitivity and Nonsuicidal self-injury frequency. Suicide and Life-threatening Behavior, 45(4), 495–504.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Carl, J. R., Fairholme, C. P., Gallagher, M. W., Thompson-Hollands, J., & Barlow, D. H. (2014). The effects of anxiety and depressive symptoms on daily positive emotion regulation. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 36(2), 224–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ciesla, J. A., & Roberts, J. E. (2002). Self-directed thought and response to treatment for depression: a preliminary investigation. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 16(4), 435–453.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Ciesla, J. A., Felton, J. W., & Roberts, J. E. (2011). Testing the cognitive catalyst model of depression: does rumination amplify the impact of cognitive diatheses in response to stress? Cognition & Emotion, 25(8), 1349–1357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Clara, I. P., Cox, B. J., & Enns, M. W. (2001). Confirmatory factor analysis of the depression–anxiety–stress scales in depressed and anxious patients. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 23(1), 61–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Conway, C. C., Slavich, G. M., & Hammen, C. (2014). Daily stress reactivity and serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) variation: internalizing responses to everyday stress as a possible transdiagnostic phenotype. Biology of mood & anxiety disorders, 4(1), 1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Cribb, G., Moulds, M. L., & Carter, S. (2006). Rumination and experiential avoidance in depression. Behaviour Change, 23(03), 165–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Donaldson, C., Lam, D., & Mathews, A. (2007). Rumination and attention in major depression. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 45(11), 2664–2678.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Edge, M. D., Miller, C. J., Muhtadie, L., Johnson, S. L., Carver, C. S., Marquinez, N., & Gotlib, I. H. (2013). People with bipolar I disorder report avoiding rewarding activities and dampening positive emotion. Journal of Affective Disorders, 146(3), 407–413.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Eisner, L. R., Johnson, S. L., & Carver, C. S. (2009). Positive affect regulation in anxiety disorders. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 23(5), 645–649.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. Feldman, G. C., Joormann, J., & Johnson, S. L. (2008). Responses to positive affect: a self-report measure of rumination and dampening. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 32(4), 507–525.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. Forbes, E. E., Hariri, A. R., Martin, S. L., Silk, J. S., Moyles, D. L., Fisher, P. M., et al. (2009). Altered striatal activation predicting real-world positive affect in adolescent major depressive disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry doi. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2008.07081336.Google Scholar
  28. Gable, S. L., & Reis, H. T. (2010). Good news! Capitalizing on positive events in an interpersonal context. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 42, 195–257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Gard, D. E., Gard, M. G., Kring, A. M., & John, O. P. (2006). Anticipatory and consummatory components of the experience of pleasure: a scale development study. Journal of Research in Personality, 40(6), 1086–1102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Genet, J. J., & Siemer, M. (2012). Rumination moderates the effects of daily events on negative mood: results from a diary study. Emotion, 12(6), 1329.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Gentzler, A. L., Kerns, K. A., & Keener, E. (2010). Emotional reactions and regulatory responses to negative and positive events: associations with attachment and gender. Motivation and Emotion, 34(1), 78–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Gentzler, A. L., Ramsey, M. A., Yuen Yi, C., Palmer, C. A., & Morey, J. N. (2014). Young adolescents’ emotional and regulatory responses to positive life events: investigating temperament, attachment, and event characteristics. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 9(2), 108–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Giesler, R. B., Josephs, R. A., & Swann, W. B. (1996). Self-verification in clinical depression: the desire for negative evaluation. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 105(3), 358.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Gilbert, K., Luking, K., Pagliaccio, D., Luby, J., & Barch, D. (2017). Dampening, positive rumination, and positive life events: associations with depressive symptoms in children at risk for depression. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 41(1), 31–42.Google Scholar
  35. Gotlib, I. H., Hamilton, J. P., Cooney, R. E., Singh, M. K., Henry, M. L., & Joormann, J. (2010). Neural processing of reward and loss in girls at risk for major depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 67(4), 380–387.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. Gross, J. J., & John, O. P. (2003). Individual differences in two emotion regulation processes: implications for affect, relationships, and well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85(2), 348.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Gruber, J., Johnson, S. L., Oveis, C., & Keltner, D. (2008). Risk for mania and positive emotional responding: too much of a good thing? Emotion, 8(1), 23.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  38. Gruber, J., Eidelman, P., Johnson, S. L., Smith, B., & Harvey, A. G. (2011). Hooked on a feeling: rumination about positive and negative emotion in inter-episode bipolar disorder. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 120(4), 956.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  39. Harvey, A. G. (2004). Cognitive behavioural processes across psychological disorders: A transdiagnostic approach to research and treatment: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Heller, A. S., Johnstone, T., Shackman, A. J., Light, S. N., Peterson, M. J., Kolden, G. G., et al. (2009). Reduced capacity to sustain positive emotion in major depression reflects diminished maintenance of fronto-striatal brain activation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106(52), 22445–22450.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hofmann, D. A., & Gavin, M. B. (1998). Centering decisions in hierarchical linear models: implications for research in organizations. Journal of Management, 24(5), 623–641.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hurley, D. B., & Kwon, P. (2012). Results of a study to increase savoring the moment: differential impact on positive and negative outcomes. Journal of Happiness Studies, 13(4), 579–588.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Jacobson, N. S., Martell, C. R., & Dimidjian, S. (2001). Behavioral activation treatment for depression: returning to contextual roots. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 8(3), 255–270.Google Scholar
  44. Johnson, S. L., McKenzie, G., & McMurrich, S. (2008). Ruminative responses to negative and positive affect among students diagnosed with bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 32(5), 702–713.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  45. Joormann, J., Siemer, M., & Gotlib, I. H. (2007). Mood regulation in depression: differential effects of distraction and recall of happy memories on sad mood. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 116(3), 484.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Jose, P. E., Lim, B. T., & Bryant, F. B. (2012). Does savoring increase happiness? A daily diary study. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 7(3), 176–187. doi: 10.1080/17439760.2012.671345.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Judd, L. L., Akiskal, H. S., Maser, J. D., Zeller, P. J., Endicott, J., Coryell, W., et al. (1998). A prospective 12-year study of subsyndromal and syndromal depressive symptoms in unipolar major depressive disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry, 55(8), 694–700.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Klein, D. N., Shankman, S. A., Lewinsohn, P. M., & Seeley, J. R. (2009). Subthreshold depressive disorder in adolescents: predictors of escalation to full-syndrome depressive disorders. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 48(7), 703–710.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Kwang, T., Swann, W. B. (2010). Do people embrace praise even when they feel unworthy? A review of critical tests of self-enhancement versus self-verification. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 14(3), 263–280.Google Scholar
  50. Larsen, R. J., Prizmic, Z. (2004). Affect regulation.Google Scholar
  51. Lo, C. S., Ho, S. M., & Hollon, S. D. (2008). The effects of rumination and negative cognitive styles on depression: a mediation analysis. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 46(4), 487–495.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Lyubomirsky, S., Tucker, K. L., Caldwell, N. D., & Berg, K. (1999). Why ruminators are poor problem solvers: clues from the phenomenology of dysphoric rumination. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77(5), 1041.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Maniaci, M. R., & Rogge, R. D. (2014). Caring about carelessness: participant inattention and its effects on research. Journal of Research in Personality, 48, 61–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Marco, C. A., & Suls, J. (1993). Daily stress and the trajectory of mood: spillover, response assimilation, contrast, and chronic negative affectivity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 64(6), 1053.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Martin, L. L., & Tesser, A. (1996). Some ruminative thoughts. Advances in social cognition, 9, 1–47.Google Scholar
  56. McIntosh, E., Gillanders, D., & Rodgers, S. (2010). Rumination, goal linking, daily hassles and life events in major depression. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, 17(1), 33–43.Google Scholar
  57. Metalsky, G. I., & Joiner, T. E. (1992). Vulnerability to depressive symptomatology: a prospective test of the diathesis-stress and causal mediation components of the hopelessness theory of depression. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 63(4), 667.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Moberly, N. J., & Watkins, E. R. (2008). Ruminative self-focus and negative affect: an experience sampling study. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 117(2), 314.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  59. Monroe, S. M., & Simons, A. D. (1991). Diathesis-stress theories in the context of life stress research: implications for the depressive disorders. Psychological Bulletin, 110(3), 406.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Moulds, M. L., Kandris, E., Starr, S., & Wong, A. C. (2007). The relationship between rumination, avoidance and depression in a non-clinical sample. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 45(2), 251–261.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Muris, P., & van der Heiden, S. (2006). Anxiety, depression, and judgments about the probability of future negative and positive events in children. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 20(2), 252–261.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Nelis, S., Luyckx, K., Feldman, G., Bastin, M., Raes, F., & Bijttebier, P. (2016). Assessing response styles to positive affect: one or two dimensions of positive rumination in the responses to positive affect questionnaire? Personality and Individual Differences, 89, 40–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Nezlek, J. B., & Gable, S. L. (2001). Depression as a moderator of relationships between positive daily events and day-to-day psychological adjustment. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27(12), 1692–1704.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (1991). Responses to depression and their effects on the duration of depressive episodes. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 100(4), 569.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2000). The role of rumination in depressive disorders and mixed anxiety/depressive symptoms. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 109(3), 504.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Nolen-Hoeksema, S., & Morrow, J. (1991). A prospective study of depression and posttraumatic stress symptoms after a natural disaster: the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61(1), 115.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Nolen-Hoeksema, S., Wisco, B. E., & Lyubomirsky, S. (2008). Rethinking rumination. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 3(5), 400–424.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Orth, U., Robins, R. W., & Roberts, B. W. (2008). Low self-esteem prospectively predicts depression in adolescence and young adulthood. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 95(3), 695.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Parrott, W. G. (1993). Beyond hedonism: motives for inhibiting good moods and for maintaining bad moods. In D. M. Wegner & J. W. Pennebaker (Eds.), Handbook of mental control (pp. 277–308). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  70. Peeters, F., Nicolson, N. A., Berkhof, J., Delespaul, P., & deVries, M. (2003). Effects of daily events on mood states in major depressive disorder. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 112(2), 203.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Philippot, P., & Brutoux, F. (2008). Induced rumination dampens executive processes in dysphoric young adults. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 39(3), 219–227.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Pizzagalli, D. A., Iosifescu, D., Hallett, L. A., Ratner, K. G., & Fava, M. (2008). Reduced hedonic capacity in major depressive disorder: evidence from a probabilistic reward task. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 43(1), 76–87.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  73. Quoidbach, J., Berry, E. V., Hansenne, M., & Mikolajczak, M. (2010). Positive emotion regulation and well-being: comparing the impact of eight savoring and dampening strategies. Personality and Individual Differences, 49(5), 368–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Raes, F., Hermans, D., de Decker, A., Eelen, P., & Williams, J. M. G. (2003). Autobiographical memory specificity and affect regulation: an experimental approach. Emotion, 3(2), 201.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Raes, F., Hermans, D., Williams, J. M. G., Demyttenaere, K., Sabbe, B., Pieters, G., & Eelen, P. (2005). Reduced specificity of autobiographical memory: a mediator between rumination and ineffective social problem-solving in major depression? Journal of Affective Disorders, 87(2), 331–335.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Raes, F., Smets, J., Nelis, S., & Schoofs, H. (2012). Dampening of positive affect prospectively predicts depressive symptoms in non-clinical samples. Cogn Emot, 26(1), 75–82. doi: 10.1080/02699931.2011.555474.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Robinson, M. S., & Alloy, L. B. (2003). Negative cognitive styles and stress-reactive rumination interact to predict depression: a prospective study. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 27(3), 275–291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Rush, A. J., Trivedi, M. H., Ibrahim, H. M., Carmody, T. J., Arnow, B., Klein, D. N., et al. (2003). The 16-item quick inventory of depressive symptomatology (QIDS), clinician rating (QIDS-C), and self-report (QIDS-SR): a psychometric evaluation in patients with chronic major depression. Biological Psychiatry, 54(5), 573–583.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Rush, A. J., Bernstein, I. H., Trivedi, M. H., Carmody, T. J., Wisniewski, S., Mundt, J. C., et al. (2006). An evaluation of the quick inventory of depressive symptomatology and the Hamilton rating scale for depression: a sequenced treatment alternatives to relieve depression trial report. Biological Psychiatry, 59(6), 493–501.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Schoofs, H., Hermans, D., & Raes, F. (2010). Brooding and reflection as subtypes of rumination: evidence from confirmatory factor analysis in nonclinical samples using the Dutch ruminative response scale. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 32(4), 609–617.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Shiffman, S., Stone, A. A., & Hufford, M. R. (2008). Ecological momentary assessment. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 4, 1–32.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Skitch, S. A., & Abela, J. R. (2008). Rumination in response to stress as a common vulnerability factor to depression and substance misuse in adolescence. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 36(7), 1029–1045.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Spasojević, J., & Alloy, L. B. (2001). Rumination as a common mechanism relating depressive risk factors to depression. Emotion, 1(1), 25.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Starr, L. R. (2015). When support seeking backfires: Co-rumination, excessive reassurance seeking, and depressed mood in the daily lives of young adults. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 34(5), 436.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Starr, L. R., & Davila, J. (2012). Temporal patterns of anxious and depressed mood in generalized anxiety disorder: a daily diary study. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 50(2), 131–141.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Starr, L. R. & Hershenberg, R. (2017). Depressive symptoms and the anticipation and experience of uplifting events in everyday life: A daily diary study. Journal of Clinical Psychology. (in press)Google Scholar
  87. Stone, A. A., Neale, J. M., & Shiffman, S. (1993). Daily assessments of stress and coping and their association with mood. Annals of Behavioral Medicine.Google Scholar
  88. Teasdale, J. D. (1988). Cognitive vulnerability to persistent depression. Cognition & Emotion, 2(3), 247–274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Totenhagen, C. J., Serido, J., Curran, M. A., & Butler, E. A. (2012). Daily hassles and uplifts: a diary study on understanding relationship quality. Journal of Family Psychology, 26(5), 719.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Treynor, W., Gonzalez, R., & Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2003). Rumination reconsidered: a psychometric analysis. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 27(3), 247–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. van Eck, M., Nicolson, N. A., & Berkhof, J. (1998). Effects of stressful daily events on mood states: relationship to global perceived stress. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75(6), 1572.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Watkins, E., & Baracaia, S. (2002). Rumination and social problem-solving in depression. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 40(10), 1179–1189.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Watkins, E., & Brown, R. (2002). Rumination and executive function in depression: an experimental study. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, 72(3), 400–402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Watkins, E., & Teasdale, J. D. (2001). Rumination and overgeneral memory in depression: effects of self-focus and analytic thinking. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 110(2), 353.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Watson, D., Clark, L. A., & Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: the PANAS scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54(6), 1063.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Werner-Seidler, A., Banks, R., Dunn, B. D., & Moulds, M. L. (2013). An investigation of the relationship between positive affect regulation and depression. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 51(1), 46–56.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Whitton, A. E., Treadway, M. T., & Pizzagalli, D. A. (2015). Reward processing dysfunction in major depression, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 28(1), 7–12.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  98. Wichers, M., Peeters, F., Geschwind, N., Jacobs, N., Simons, C., Derom, C., et al. (2010). Unveiling patterns of affective responses in daily life may improve outcome prediction in depression: a momentary assessment study. Journal of Affective Disorders, 124(1), 191–195.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Wood, J. V., Heimpel, S. A., & Michela, J. L. (2003). Savoring versus dampening: self-esteem differences in regulating positive affect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85(3), 566.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. World Health Organization. (2014). F. S. N. D., Viewed 8 JanuaryGoogle Scholar
  101. Yoon, K. L., Joormann, J., & Gotlib, I. H. (2009). Judging the intensity of facial expressions of emotion: depression-related biases in the processing of positive affect. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 118(1), 223.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Y. Irina Li
    • 1
    Email author
  • Lisa R. Starr
    • 1
  • Rachel Hershenberg
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Clinical and Social Sciences in PsychologyUniversity of RochesterRochesterUSA
  2. 2.Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral SciencesEmory UniversityAtlantaUSA

Personalised recommendations