Development and Preliminary Validation of the Threat Appraisal Questionnaire for Children (TAQ-C)

  • Rosanna FrancisEmail author
  • David J. Hawes
  • Maree Abbott
  • Daniel S. J. Costa


Despite the emphasis on threat appraisal in cognitive models of anxiety, self-report measures of related processes in children and adolescents have been lacking. This paper reports on the development and preliminary psychometric evaluation of a new measure of threat appraisal for children and adolescents – the Threat Appraisal Questionnaire for Children (TAQ-C). Based on current conceptualisations of threat appraisal, the TAQ-C was designed to index the construct across three dimensions: probability, cost, and coping difficulties. Confirmatory Factor Analysis was used to examine this structure in a community sample of n = 312 children (ages 9–15 years, 55% female). Results indicated that the scores on the instrument capture three factors (Probability, Cost and Coping difficulties). Moreover, a model in which the 1st-order factors loaded significantly on a single 2nd order factor of threat in general, was supported. The TAQ-C was found to demonstrate good internal consistency, and acceptable levels of test-retest reliability within a 3–4 week interval, when evaluated with a subsample of n = 51 children. Support for convergent validity was demonstrated, with TAQ-C scores found to correlate strongly with existing measures of child anxiety, and conceptually related cognitive processes. Divergent validity was also evidenced, with low correlations found between TAQ-C scores and the unrelated construct measure of Hyperactivity-Inattention. The TAQ-C, therefore, appears to be a promising measure with a range of potential applications for child and adolescent settings.


Threat appraisal Probability Cost Coping Adolescent Anxiety 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Rosanna Francis, David J. Hawes, Maree Abbott, and Daniel S. J. Costa declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Experiment Participants

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


  1. Alfano, C. A., Beidel, D. C., & Turner, S. M. (2002). Cognition in childhood anxiety: conceptual, methodological, and developmental issues. Clinical Psychologist Reviews, 22(8), 1209–1238. doi: 10.1016/S0272-7358(02)00205-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. American Psychiatric Association (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text rev.). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  3. American Psychiatric Association (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Arlington: American Psychiatric Publishing.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Anderson, A. K., Christoff, K., Panitz, D., De Rosa, E., & Gabrieli, J. D. (2003). Neural correlates of the automatic processing of threat facial signals. The Journal of Neuroscience, 23(13), 5627–5633.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Andrews, G., Hobbs, M. J., Borkovec, T. D., Beesdo, K., Craske, M. G., Heimberg, R. G., … Stanley, M. A. (2010). Generalized worry disorder: A review of DSM-IV generalized anxiety disorder and options for DSM-V. Depression and Anxiety, 27(2), 134–147. doi: 10.1002/da.20658.
  6. Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2013). Census of Population and Housing: Socio-Economic Indexes for Areas (SEIFA), Australia, 2011 (cat. no. 2033.0.55.001). Retrieved from
  7. Bacow, T. L., May, J. E., Brody, L. R., & Pincus, D. B. (2010). Are there specific metacognitive processes associated with anxiety disorders in youth? Psychology Research and Behavior Management, 3, 81–89. doi: 10.2147/prbm.s11785.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bacow, T. L., Pincus, D. B., Ehrenreich, J. T., & Brody, L. R. (2009). The metacognitions questionnaire for children: development and validation in a clinical sample of children and adolescents with anxiety disorders. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 23(6), 727–736. doi: 10.1016/j.janxdis.2009.02.013.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Baldwin, J. S., & Dadds, M. R. (2007). Reliability and validity of parent and child versions of the multidimensional anxiety scale for children in community samples. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 46(2), 252–260. doi: 10.1097/01.chi.0000246065.93200.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Beck, A. T., Emery, G., & Greenberg, R. L. (1985). Anxiety disorders and phobias: a cognitive perspective. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  11. Becker, A., Woerner, W., Hasselhorn, M., Banaschewski, T., & Rothenberger, A. (2004). Validation of the parent and teacher SDQ in a clinical sample. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 13(S2), 11–16. doi: 10.1007/s00787-004-2003-5.Google Scholar
  12. Beesdo, K., Bittner, A., Pine, D. S., Stein, M. B., Höfler, M., Lieb, R., & Wittchen, H.-U. (2007). Incidence of social anxiety disorder and the consistent risk for secondary depression in the first three decades of life. Archives of General Psychiatry, 64(8), 903–912. doi: 10.1001/archpsyc.64.8.903.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Beesdo, K., Knappe, S., & Pine, D. S. (2009). Anxiety and anxiety disorders in children and adolescents: developmental issues and implications for DSM-V. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 32(3), 483–524. doi: 10.1016/j.psc.2009.06.002.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bögels, S. M., van Dongen, L. V., & Muris, P. (2003). Family influences on dysfunctional thinking in anxious children. Infant and Child Development, 12(3), 243–252. doi: 10.1002/icd.288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bögels, S. M., & Zigterman, D. (2000). Dysfunctional cognitions in children with social phobia, separation anxiety disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 28(2), 205–211. doi: 10.1023/A:1005179032470.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Borkovec, T. D., Alcaine, O. M., & Behar, E. (2004). Avoidance theory of worry and generalized anxiety disorder. In R. Heimberg, C. Turk, & D. Mennin (Eds.), Generalized anxiety disorder: advances in research and practice (pp. 77–108). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  17. Borkovec, T., & Inz, J. (1990). The nature of worry in generalized anxiety disorder: a predominance of thought activity. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 28(2), 153–158. doi: 10.1016/0005-7967(90)90027-g.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bourdon, K. H., Goodman, R., Rae, D. S., Simpson, G., & Koretz, D. S. (2005). The strengths and difficulties questionnaire: U.S. normative data and psychometric properties. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 44(6), 557–564. doi: 10.1097/01.chi.0000159157.57075.c8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bradley, B. P., Mogg, K., Millar, N., & White, J. (1995). Selective processing of negative information: effects of clinical anxiety, concurrent depression, and awareness. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 104(3), 532–536. doi: 10.1037/0021-843x.104.3.532.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bradley, B. P., Mogg, K., White, J., Groom, C., & Bono, J. (1999). Attentional bias for emotional faces in generalized anxiety disorder. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 38(3), 267–278. doi: 10.1348/014466599162845.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Brown, T. A., Di Nardo, P. A., & Barlow, D. H. (1994). Anxiety disorders interview schedule for DSM-IV (ADIS-IV). San Antonio: Psychological Corporation Publications Incorporated.Google Scholar
  22. Buhr, K., & Dugas, M. J. (2002). The intolerance of uncertainty scale: psychometric properties of the English version. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 40(8), 931–945. doi: 10.1016/S0005-7967(01)00092-4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Buhr, K., & Dugas, M. J. (2012). Fear of emotions, experiential avoidance, and intolerance of uncertainty in worry and generalized anxiety disorder. International Journal of Cognitive Therapy, 5(1), 1–17. doi: 10.1521/ijct.2012.5.1.1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Butler, G., & Mathews, A. (1983). Cognitive processes in anxiety. Advances in Behaviour Research and Therapy, 5(1), 51–62. doi: 10.1016/0146-6402(83)90015-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Butler, G., & Mathews, A. (1987). Anticipatory anxiety and risk perception. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 11(5), 551–565. doi: 10.1007/bf01183858.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Cartwright-Hatton, S., Hodges, L., & Porter, J. (2003). Social anxiety in childhood: the relationship with self and observer rated social skills. The Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 44(5), 737–742. doi: 10.1111/1469-7610.00159.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Cartwright-Hatton, S., McNicol, K., & Doubleday, E. (2006). Anxiety in a neglected population: prevalence of anxiety disorders in pre-adolescent children. Clinical Psychology Review, 26(7), 817–833. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2005.12.002.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Cartwright-Hatton, S., & Wells, A. (1997). Beliefs about worry and intrusions: the meta-cognitions questionnaire and its correlates. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 11(3), 279–296. doi: 10.1016/s0887-6185(97)00011-x.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Chen, E., Lewin, M. R., & Craske, M. G. (1996). Effects of state anxiety on selective processing of threatening information. Cognition & Emotion, 10(3), 225–240. doi: 10.1080/026999396380231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Chen, J. T.-H., & Lovibond, P. F. (2016). Appraisal and negative affect under ambiguity but not uncertainty. Behavior Therapy, 47(1), 42–53. doi: 10.1016/j.beth.2015.09.004.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Chorpita, B. F., Tracey, S. A., Brown, T. A., Collica, T. J., & Barlow, D. H. (1997). Assessment of worry in children and adolescents: an adaptation of the Penn State worry questionnaire. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 35(6), 569–581. doi: 10.1016/S0005-7967(96)00116-7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Clark, D. M. (1999). Anxiety disorders: why they persist and how to treat them. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 37. doi: 10.1016/s0005-7967(99)00048-0.
  33. Clark, D. A., & Beck, A. T. (2011). Cognitive therapy of anxiety disorders: science and practice. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  34. Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  35. Comer, J. S., Roy, A. K., Furr, J. M., Gotimer, K., Beidas, R. S., Dugas, M. J., & Kendall, P. C. (2009). The intolerance of uncertainty scale for children: a psychometric evaluation. Psychological Assessment, 21(3), 402–411. doi: 10.1037/a001671919719351.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Copeland, W. E., Angold, A., Shanahan, L., & Costello, E. J. (2014). Longitudinal patterns of anxiety from childhood to adulthood: the great smoky mountains study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 53(1), 21–33. doi: 10.1016/j.jaac.2013.09.017.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Costello, E. J. (2003). Prevalence and development of psychiatric disorders in childhood and adolescence. Archives of General Psychiatry, 60(8), 837–844. doi: 10.1001/archpsyc.60.8.837.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Costello, E. J., Egger, H. L., & Angold, A. (2004). Developmental epidemiology of anxiety disorders. In T. H. Ollendick & J. S. March (Eds.), Phobic and anxiety disorders in children and adolescents: a clinician's guide to effective psychosocial and pharmacological interventions (pp. 61–91). New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Craske, M. G., Rapee, R. M., Jackel, L., & Barlow, D. H. (1989). Qualitative dimensions of worry in DSM-III-R generalized anxiety disorder subjects and nonanxious controls. Behavior Research and Therapy, 27(4), 397–402. doi: 10.1016/0005-7967(89)90010-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Creswell, C., Murray, L., & Cooper, P. J. (2014). Interpretation and expectation in childhood anxiety disorders: age effects and social specificity. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 42(3), 453–465. doi: 10.1007/s10802-013-9795-z.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Creswell, C., Schniering, C. A., & Rapee, R. M. (2005). Threat interpretation in anxious children and their mothers: comparison with nonclinical children and the effects of treatment. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 43(10), 1375–1381. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2004.10.009.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Creswell, C., Shildrick, S., & Field, A.P. (2011). Interpretation of ambiguity in children: A prospective study of associations with anxiety and parental interpretations. Journal of Child & Family Studies, 20(2), 240-250. doi: 10.1007/s10826-010-9390-7.
  43. Davey, G., & Wells, A. (Eds.) (2006). Worry and its psychological disorders: theory, assessment, and treatment. Chichester: Wiley.Google Scholar
  44. De Sousa, D. A., Pereira, A. S., Petersen, C. S., Manfro, G. G., Salum, G. A., & Koller, S. H. (2014). Psychometric properties of the Brazilian-Portuguese version of the Spence Children's anxiety scale (SCAS): self- and parent-report versions. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 28(5), 427–436. doi: 10.1016/j.janxdis.2014.03.006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Dudeney, J., Sharpe, L., & Hunt, C. (2015). Attentional bias towards threatening stimuli in children with anxiety: a meta-analysis. Clinical Psychologist Reviews, 40, 66–75. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2015.05.007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Duffy, C. J., Cunningham, E. G., & Moore, S. M. (2005). Brief report: the factor structure of mood states in an early adolescent sample. Journal of Adolescence, 28(5), 677–680. doi: 10.1016/j.adolescence.2005.08.013.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Dugas, M. J., Freeston, M. H., Ladouceur, R., Rhéaume, J., Provencher, M., & Boisvert, J. (1998a). Worry themes in primary GAD, secondary GAD, and other anxiety disorders. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 12(3), 253–261. doi: 10.1016/s0887-6185(98)00013-9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Dugas, M. J., Gagnon, F., Ladouceur, R., & Freeston, M. H. (1998b). Generalized anxiety disorder: a preliminary test of a conceptual model. Behaviour Research & Therapy, 36(2), 215–226. doi: 10.1016/S0005-7967(97)00070-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Dugas, M. J., Letarte, H., Rhéaume, J., Freeston, M. H., & Ladouceur, R. (1995). Worry and problem solving: evidence of a specific relationship. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 19(1), 109–120. doi: 10.1007/bf02229679.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Dugas, M. J., Marchand, A., & Ladouceur, R. (2005). Further validation of a cognitive-behavioral model of generalized anxiety disorder: diagnostic and symptom specificity. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 19(3), 329–343. doi: 10.1016/j.janxdis.2004.02.002.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Dugas, M. J., & Robichaud, M. (2007). Cognitive-behavioral treatment for generalized anxiety disorder: from science to practice. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  52. Dugas, M. J., Schwartz, A., & Francis, K. (2004). Brief report: intolerance of uncertainty, worry, and depression. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 28(6), 835–842. doi: 10.1007/s10608-004-0669-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Esbjørn, B. H., Reinholdt-Dunne, M. L., Caspersen, I. D., Christensen, L. B., & Chorpita, B. F. (2012). Penn State worry questionnaire: findings from normative and clinical samples in Denmark. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 35(1), 113–122. doi: 10.1007/s10862-012-9320-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Esbjørn, B. H., Sømhovd, M. J., Holm, J. M., Lønfeldt, N. N., Bender, P. K., Nielsen, S. K., & Reinholdt-Dunne, M. L. (2013). A structural assessment of the 30-item metacognitions questionnaire for children and its relations to anxiety symptoms. Psychological Assessment, 25(4), 1211–1219. doi: 10.1037/a0033793.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Essau, C. A., Muris, P., & Ederer, E. M. (2002). Reliability and validity of the Spence Children's anxiety scale and the screen for child anxiety related emotional disorders in German children. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 33(1), 1–18. doi: 10.1016/s0005-7916(02)00005-8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Eysenck, M. W. (1992). Anxiety: the cognitive perspective. Hove: Erlbaum Ltd..Google Scholar
  57. Eysenck, M. W., Mogg, K., May, J., Richards, A., & Mathews, A. (1991). Bias in interpretation of ambiguous sentences related to threat in anxiety. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 100(2), 144–150. doi: 10.1037/0021-843x.100.2.144.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Eysenck, M. W., & Van-Berkum, J. (1992). Trait anxiety, defensiveness, and the structure of worry. Personality and Individual Differences, 13, 1285–1290. doi: 10.1016/01918869(92)90170-T.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Ferguson, E., Matthews, G., & Cox, T. (1999). The appraisal of life events (ALE) scale: reliability, and validity. British Journal of Health Psychology, 4(2), 97–116. doi: 10.1348/135910799168506.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Field, A. P., & Lester, K. J. (2010). Is there room for 'development' in developmental models of information processing biases to threat in children and adolescents? Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 13(4), 315–332. doi: 10.1007/s10567-010-0078-8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Findling, R. L., Weisz, J. R., & Szigethy, E. (2012). Cognitive-behavior therapy for children and adolescents. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing.Google Scholar
  62. Fischer, K. L., & Pipp, S. L. (1984). Processes of cognitive development: optimal level and skill acquisition. In R. J. Sternberg (Ed.), Mechanisms of cognitive development (pp. 45–80). New York: W. H. Freeman.Google Scholar
  63. Flavell, J. H. (1979). Metacognition and cognitive monitoring. A new area of cognitive-development inquiry. American Psychologist, 34(10), 906–911. doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.34.10.906.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Flesch, R. (1950). How to measure readability: measuring the level of abstraction. Journal of Applied Psychology, 34, 384–390.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Flesch, R. (1951). How to test readability. New York: Harper and Brothers.Google Scholar
  66. Flesch, R. (1974). The art of readable writing; with the Flesch readability formula by Rudolf Flesch. New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  67. Foa, E. B., Franklin, M. E., Perry, K. J., & Herbert, J. D. (1996). Cognitive bias in generalized social phobia. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 105(3), 433–439. doi: 10.1037/0021-843X.105.3.433.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Freeston, M. H., Rhéaume, J., Letarte, H., Dugas, M. J., & Ladouceur, R. (1994). Why do people worry? Personality and Individual Differences, 17(6), 791–802. doi: 10.1016/0191-8869(94)90048-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Frydenberg, E. (1993). The coping strategies used by capable adolescents. Australian Journal of Guidance and Counselling, 3, 15–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Frydenberg, E. (1994). Adolescent concerns: the concomitants of coping. Australian Journal of Educational and Developmental Psychology, 4, 1–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Frydenberg, E., & Lewis, R. (1991). Adolescent coping: the different ways in which boys and girls cope. Journal of Adolescence, 14, 119–133. doi: 10.1016/0140-1971(91)90025-M.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Frydenberg, E., & Lewis, R. (1993). The adolescent coping scale: Administrator's manual. Melbourne: Australian Council for Educational Research.Google Scholar
  73. Goodman, R. (1997). The strengths and difficulties questionnaire: a research note. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 38(5), 581–586. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.1997.tb01545.x.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Goodman, R. (2001). Psychometric properties of the strengths and difficulties questionnaire. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 40(11), 1337–1345. doi: 10.1097/00004583-200111000-00015.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Graham, P., & Reynolds, S. (Eds.) (2013). Cognitive behavior therapy for children and families (3rd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi: 10.1017/CBO9781139344456.Google Scholar
  76. Greco, L. A., & Morris, T. L. (2004). Assessment. In T. L. Morris & J. S. March (Eds.), Anxiety disorders in children and adolescents (2nd ed., pp. 98–124). New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  77. Gregory, A. M., Caspi, A., Moffitt, T. E., Koenen, K., Eley, T. C., & Poulton, R. (2007). Juvenile mental health histories of adults with anxiety disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry, 164(2), 301–308. doi: 10.1176/ajp.2007.164.2.301.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Grills-Taquechel, A. E., Ollendick, T. H., & Fisak, B. (2008). Reexamination of the MASC factor structure and discriminant ability in a mixed clinical outpatient sample. Depression and Anxiety, 25(11), 942–950. doi: 10.1002/da.20401.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Grupe, D. W., & Nitschke, J. B. (2013). Uncertainty and anticipation in anxiety: an integrated neurobiological and psychological perspective. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 14(7), 488–501. doi: 10.1038/nrn3524.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Hadwin, J., Frost, S., French, C. C., & Richards, A. (1997). Cognitive processing and trait anxiety in typically developing children: evidence for an interpretation bias. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 106(3), 486–490. doi: 10.1037/0021-843x.106.3.486.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Hadwin, J. A., Garner, M., & Perez-Olivas, G. (2006). The development of information processing biases in childhood anxiety: a review and exploration of its origins in parenting. Clinical Psychology Review, 26(7), 876–894. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2005.09.004.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Hasija, S. (1993). Personality, stress and problem solving. New Delhi: Northern Book Centre.Google Scholar
  83. Hawes, D. J., & Dadds, M. R. (2004). Australian data and psychometric properties of the strengths and difficulties questionnaire. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 38(8), 644–651. doi: 10.1080/j.1440-1614.2004.01427.x.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Hayes, S., Hirsch, C. R., Krebs, G., & Mathews, A. (2010). The effects of modifying interpretation bias on worry in generalized anxiety disorder. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 48(3), 171–178. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2009.10.006.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Hemenover, S. H., & Dienstbier, R. A. (1996). Prediction of stress appraisals from mastery, extraversion, neuroticism, and general appraisal tendencies. Motivation and Emotion, 20(4), 299–317. doi: 10.1007/bf02856520.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Hirsch, C. R., Hayes, S., & Mathews, A. (2009). Looking on the bright side: accessing benign meanings reduces worry. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 118(1), 44–54. doi: 10.1037/a0013473.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Hirsch, C. R., & Mathews, A. (2012). A cognitive model of pathological worry. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 50(10), 636–646. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2012.06.007.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Hofmann, S. G. (2007). Cognitive factors that maintain social anxiety disorder: a comprehensive model and its treatment implications. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, 36(4), 195–209. doi: 10.1080/16506070701421313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Hood, B., Power, T., & Hill, L. (2009). Children’s appraisal of moderately stressful situations. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 33(2), 167–177. doi: 10.1177/0165025408098011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Huberty, T. J. (2012). Anxiety and depression in children and adolescents: assessment, intervention and prevention. New York: Springer. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4614-3110-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Janeck, A. S., Calamari, J. E., Riemann, B. C., & Heffelfinger, S. K. (2003). Too much thinking about thinking?: metacognitive differences in obsessive–compulsive disorder. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 17(2), 181–195. doi: 10.1016/s0887-6185(02)00198-6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Kazdin, A. E. (2007). Mediators and mechanisms of change in psychotherapy research. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 3, 1–27. doi: 10.1146/annurev.clinpsy.3.022806.091432.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Keating, D. P. (2004). Cognitive and brain development. In R. M. Lerner & L. D. Steinberg (Eds.), Handbook of adolescent psychology (pp. 45–84). Hoboken: Wiley.Google Scholar
  94. Kendler, K. S., Gardner, C. O., & Prescott, C. A. (2006). Toward a comprehensive developmental model for major depression in men. American Journal of Psychiatry, 163(1), 115–124. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.163.1.115.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Kertz, S. J., & Woodruff-Borden, J. (2011). The developmental psychopathology of worry. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 14(2), 174–197. doi: 10.1007/s10567-011-0086-3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Kessler, R. C., Berglund, P., Demler, O., Jin, R., Merikangas, K. R., & Walters, E. E. (2005a). Lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of DSM-IV disorders in the national comorbidity survey replication. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62(6), 593. doi: 10.1001/archpsyc.62.6.593.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Kessler, R. C., Chiu, W. T., Demler, O., & Walters, E. E. (2005b). Prevalence, severity, and comorbidity of 12-month DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62(6), 617–627. doi: 10.1001/archpsyc.62.6.617.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Klein, R. G., & Pine, D. S. (2002). Anxiety disorders. In M. Rutter & A. Taylor (Eds.), Child and adolescent psychiatry (4th ed., pp. 486–509). Malden: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  99. Kline, R. B. (2011). Principles and practice of structural equation modelling (3rd ed.). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  100. Kovacs, M., Gatsonis, C., Paulauskas, S. L., & Richards, C. (1989). Depressive disorders in childhood IV: a longitudinal study of comorbidity with and risk for anxiety disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry, 46(9), 776–782. doi: 10.1001/archpsyc.1989.01810090018003.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Kushner, M. G., Abrams, K., & Borchardt, C. (2000). The relationship between anxiety disorders and alcohol use disorders: a review of major perspectives and findings. Clinical Psychology Review, 20(2), 149–171. doi: 10.1016/S0272-7358(99)00027-6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Kushner, M. G., Sher, K. J., & Beitman, B. D. (1990). The relation between alcohol problems and the anxiety disorders. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 147(6), 685–695. doi: 10.1176/ajp.147.6.685.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Landis, J. R., & Koch, G. G. (1977). The measurement of observer agreement for categorical data. Biometrics, 33(1), 159–174. doi: 10.2307/2529310.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Lavy, E., Hout, M. V., & Arntz, A. (1993). Attentional bias and spider phobia: conceptual and clinical issues. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 31(1), 17–24. doi: 10.1016/0005-7967(93)90038-v.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Lonigan, C. J., Vasey, M. W., Phillips, B. M., & Hazen, R. A. (2004). Temperament, anxiety, and the processing of threat-relevant stimuli. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 33(1), 8–20. doi: 10.1207/S15374424JCCP3301_2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Lovibond, P., & Lovibond, S. (1995). The structure of negative emotional states: comparison of the depression anxiety stress scales (DASS) with the Beck depression and anxiety inventories. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 33(3), 335–343. doi: 10.1016/0005-7967(94)00075-u.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Lovibond, S. H., & Lovibond, P. F. (1996). Manual for the depression anxiety stress scales (2nd ed.). Sydney: Psychology Foundation of Australia.Google Scholar
  108. Lovibond, P. F., & Rapee, R. M. (1993). The representation of feared outcomes. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 31(6), 595–608. doi: 10.1016/0005-7967(93)90111-7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Mcnally, R. J. (2001). On the scientific status of cognitive appraisal models of anxiety disorder. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 39(5), 513–521. doi: 10.1016/s0005-7967(00)00073-5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. McNally, R. J., & Foa, E. (1987). Cognition and agoraphobia: bias in the interpretation of threat. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 11(5), 567–581.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Macleod, C., Mathews, A., & Tata, P. (1986). Attentional bias in emotional disorders. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 95(1), 15–20. doi: 10.1037/0021-843x.95.1.15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Maidenberg, E., Chen, E., Craske, M., Bohn, P., & Bystritsky, A. (1996). Specificity of attentional bias in panic disorder and social phobia. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 10(6), 529–541. doi: 10.1016/s0887-6185(96)00028-x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Manassis, K., & Bradley, S. J. (1994). The development of childhood anxiety disorders: toward an integrated model. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 15, 345–366. doi: 10.1016/0193-3973(94)90037-X.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. March, J. S. (1997). Multidimensional anxiety scale for children technical manual. Toronto: Multi-Health Systems Inc..Google Scholar
  115. March, J. S., Conners, C., Arnold, G., Epstein, J., Parker, J., Hinshaw, S., … Hoza, B. (1999a). The Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC): Confirmatory factor analysis in a pediatric ADHD sample. Journal of Attention Disorders, 3(2), 85–89. doi: 10.1177/108705479900300202.
  116. March, J. S., Parker, J. D., Sullivan, K., Stallings, P., & Conners, C. K. (1997). The multidimensional anxiety scale for children (MASC): factor structure, reliability, and validity. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36(4), 554–565. doi: 10.1097/00004583-199704000-00019.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. March, J. S., Sullivan, K., & Parker, J. (1999b). Test-retest reliability of the multidimensional anxiety scale for children (MASC): factor structure, reliability, and validity. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 13(4), 349–358. doi: 10.1016/S0887-6185(99)00009-2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Mathews, A. (1990). Why worry? The cognitive function of anxiety. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 28(6), 455–468. doi: 10.1016/0005-7967(90)90132-3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Mathews, A., & Mackintosh, B. (1998). A cognitive model of selective processing in anxiety. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 22(6), 539–560. doi: 10.1023/A:1018738019346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Mathews, A., & Macleod, C. (1994). Cognitive approaches to emotion and emotional disorders. Annual Review of Psychology, 45(1), 25–50. doi: 10.1146/ Scholar
  121. Mathews, A., & Macleod, C. (2005). Cognitive vulnerability to emotional disorders. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 1(1), 167–195. doi: 10.1146/annurev.clinpsy.1.102803.143916.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Mathews, A., Richards, A., & Eysenck, M. (1989). Interpretation of homophones related to threat in anxiety states. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 98(1), 31–34. doi: 10.1037/0021-843x.98.1.31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Mennin, D. S., Heimberg, R. G., Turk, C. L., & Fresco, D. M. (2002). Applying an emotion regulation framework to integrative approaches to generalized anxiety disorder. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 9(1), 85–90. doi: 10.1093/clipsy.9.1.85.Google Scholar
  124. Meyer, T. J., Miller, M. L., Metzger, R. L., & Borkovec, T. D. (1990). Development and validation of the Penn State worry questionnaire. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 28(6), 487–495. doi: 10.1016/0005-7967(90)90135-6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Miele, D. B., Son, L. K., & Metcalfe, J. (2013). Children's naive theories of intelligence influence their metacognitive judgments. Child Development, 84(6), 1879–1886. doi: 10.1111/cdev.12101.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Mogg, K., & Bradley, B. P. (1998). A cognitive-motivational analysis of anxiety. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 36(9), 809–848. doi: 10.1016/S0005-7967(98)00063-1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Mogg, K., Millar, N., & Bradley, B. P. (2000). Biases in eye movements to threatening facial expressions in generalized anxiety disorder and depressive disorder. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 109(4), 695–704. doi: 10.1037/0021-843x.109.4.695.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Mogg, K., Philippot, P., & Bradley, B. P. (2004). Selective attention to angry faces in clinical social phobia. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 113(1), 160–165. doi: 10.1037/0021-843x.113.1.160.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Moore, P. S., March, J. S., Albano, A. M., & Thienemann, M. T. (2010). Anxiety disorders in children and adolescents. In D. J. Stein, E. Hollander, & B. O. Rothbaum (Eds.), Textbook of anxiety disorders (2nd ed., pp. 629–650). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing.Google Scholar
  130. Morgan, J. R., Price, M., Schmertz, S. K., Johnson, S. B., Masuda, A., Calamaras, M., & Anderson, P. L. (2013). Cognitive processes as mediators of the relation between mindfulness and change in social anxiety symptoms following cognitive behavioral treatment. Anxiety, Stress, & Coping, 27(3), 288–302. doi: 10.1080/10615806.2013.839988.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Mörtberg, E., & Andersson, G. (2013). Predictors of response to individual and group cognitive behaviour therapy of social phobia. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 87(1), 32–43. doi: 10.1111/papt.12002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Moshman, D., & Franks, B. A. (1986). Development of the concept of inferential validity. Child Development, 57(1), 153–165. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.1986.tb00016.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Muris, P. (2007). Normal and abnormal fear and anxiety in children and adolescents. Burlington: Elsevier Science.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Muris, P. (2010). Anxiety-related reasoning biases in children and adolescents. In J. Hadwin & A. P. Field (Eds.), Information processing biases and anxiety: a developmental perspective (pp. 21–45). Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell. doi: 10.1002/9780470661468.Google Scholar
  135. Muris, P., Kindt, M., Bogels, S., Merckelbach, H., Gadet, B., & Moulaert, V. (2000a). Anxiety and threat perception abnormalities in normal children. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioural Assessment, 22(2), 183–199. doi: 10.1023/A:1007588524525.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Muris, P., Meesters, C., & Gobel, M. (2001). Reliability, validity, and normative data of the Penn State worry questionnaire in 8-12-yr-old children. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 32(2), 63–72. doi: 10.1016/S0005-7916(01)00022-2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Muris, P., Merckelbach, H., Ollendick, T., King, N., & Bogie, N. (2002). Three traditional and three new childhood anxiety questionnaires: their reliability and validity in a normal adolescent sample. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 40(7), 753–772. doi: 10.1016/s0005-7967(01)00056-0.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Muris, P., Schmidt, H., & Merckelbach, H. (2000b). Correlations among two self-report questionnaires for measuring DSM-defined anxiety disorder symptoms in children: the screen for child anxiety related emotional disorders and the Spence Children’s anxiety scale. Personality and Individual Differences, 28(2), 333–346. doi: 10.1016/s0191-8869(99)00102-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Muris, P., Meesters, C., & van den Berg, F. (2003). The strengths and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ): further evidence for its reliability and validity in a community sample of Dutch children and adolescents. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 12, 1–8. doi: 10.1007/s00787-003-0298-2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (1998–2010). Mplus User’s Guide (Sixth ed.). Los Angeles: Muthén & Muthén.Google Scholar
  141. Nunnally, J. C., & Bernstein, I. H. (1994). Psychometric theory (3rd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  142. Nelson, E. A., Lickel, J. J., Sy, J. T., Dixon, L. J., & Deacon, B. J. (2010). Probability and cost biases in social phobia: nature, specificity, and relationship to treatment outcome. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 24(3), 213–228. doi: 10.1891/0889-8391.24.3.213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Olason, D. T., Sighvatsson, M. B., & Smari, J. (2004). Psychometric properties of the multidimensional anxiety scale for children (MASC) among Icelandic schoolchildren. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 45(5), 429–436. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9450.2004.00424.x.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Palmieri, P. A., & Smith, G. C. (2007). Examining the structural validity of the strengths and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ) in a U.S. sample of custodial grandmothers. Psychological Assessment, 19(2), 189–198. doi: 10.1037/1040-3590.19.2.189.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Papworth, M., Marrinan, T., Martin, B., Keegan, D., & Chaddock, A. (2013). Low intensity cognitive behaviour therapy: a practitioner’s guide. Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications Inc..Google Scholar
  146. Perrin, S., & Last, C. G. (1997). Worrisome thoughts in children clinically referred for anxiety disorder. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 26(2), 181–189. doi: 10.1207/s15374424jccp2602_6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Pestle, S. L., Chorpita, B. F., & Schiffman, J. (2008). Psychometric properties of the Penn State worry questionnaire for children in a large clinical sample. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 37(2), 465–471. doi: 10.1080/15374410801955896.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Pine, D. S. (2011). The biology of childhood and adolescent anxiety. In W. K. Silverman & A. P. Field (Eds.), Anxiety disorders in children and adolescents (pp. 179–197). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Pine, D. S., Cohen, P., Gurley, D., Brook, J., & Ma, Y. (1998). The risk for early adulthood anxiety and depressive disorders in adolescents with anxiety and depressive disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry, 55(1), 56–64. doi: 10.1001/archpsyc.55.1.56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Posner, M. I., & Rothbart, M. K. (2000). Developing mechanisms of self-regulation. Developmental Psychopathology, 12(3), 427–441. doi: 10.1017/S0954579400003096.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Power, M. J., & Dalgleish, T. (2016). Cognition and emotion: from order to disorder (3rd ed.). New York: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  152. Przeworski, A. (2006). The development and psychometric properties of the intolerance of uncertainty scale for children. Ann Arbor: ProQuest LLC.Google Scholar
  153. Rheingold, A. A., Herbert, J. D., & Franklin, M. E. (2003). Cognitive bias in adolescents with social anxiety disorder. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 27(6), 639–655.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Rusting, C. L. (1998). Personality, mood, and cognitive processing of emotional information: three conceptual frameworks. Psychological Bulletin, 124(2), 165–196. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.124.2.165.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Rynn, M. A., Barber, J. P., Khalid-Khan, S., Siqueland, L., Dembiski, M., Mccarthy, K. S., & Gallop, R. (2006). The psychometric properties of the MASC in a pediatric psychiatric sample. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 20(2), 139–157. doi: 10.1016/j.janxdis.2005.01.004.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Sburlati, E. S., Lyneham, H. J., Schniering, C. A., & Rapee, R. M. (Eds.) (2014). Evidence-based CBT for anxiety and depression in children & adolescents: a competencies based approach. Malden: Wiley.Google Scholar
  157. Scherer, R., & Drumheller, P. (1992). Consistency in cognitive appraisal of a stressful event over time. The Journal of Social Psychology, 132(4), 553–555. doi: 10.1080/00224545.1992.9924737.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Shepherd, J., Oliver, M., & Schofield, G. (2015). Convergent validity and test-retest reliability of the authentic happiness inventory in working adults. Social Indices Research, 124(3), 1049–1058. doi: 10.1007/s11205-014-0812-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Shrout, P. E., & Fleiss, J. L. (1979). Intraclass correlations: uses in assessing rater reliability. Psychological Bulletin, 86(2), 420–428. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.86.2.420.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Silverman, W. K., Saavedra, L. M., & Pina, A. A. (2001). Test-retest reliability of anxiety symptoms and diagnoses with the anxiety disorders interview schedule for DSM-IV: child and parent versions. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 40(8), 937–944. doi: 10.1097/00004583-200108000-00016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Skinner, N., & Brewer, N. (2002). The dynamics of threat and challenge appraisals prior to stressful achievement events. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 83(3), 678–692. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.83.3.678.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Smits, J. A., Julian, K., Rosenfield, D., & Powers, M. B. (2012). Threat reappraisal as a mediator of symptom change in cognitive-behavioral treatment of anxiety disorders: a systematic review. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 80(4), 624–635. doi: 10.1037/a0028957.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Spence, S. (1997). Structure of anxiety symptoms among children: a confirmatory factor-analytic study. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 106(2), 280–297. doi: 10.1037/0021-843X.106.2.280.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Spence, S. (1998). A measure of anxiety symptoms among children. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 36(5), 545–566. doi: 10.1016/S0005-7967(98)00034-5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Spence, S. H., Barrett, P. M., & Turner, C. M. (2003). Psychometric properties of the Spence Children’s anxiety scale with young adolescents. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 17(6), 605–625. doi: 10.1016/S0887-6185(02)00236-0.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Stallard, P. (2008). CBT with children, adolescents and families anxiety: cognitive behaviour therapy with children and young people. New York: Routledge. doi: 10.1017/S1352465810000366.Google Scholar
  167. Stapinski, L., Abbott, M. J., & Rapee, R. M. (2010). Fear and perceived uncontrollability of emotion: evaluating the unique contribution of emotion appraisal variables to prediction of worry and generalised anxiety disorder. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 48(11), 1097–1104. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2010.07.012.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Stattin, H., Magnusson, D., Olah, A., Kassin, H., & Reddy, N. Y. (1991). Perception of threatening consequences of anxiety-provoking situations. Anxiety Research, 4, 141–166. doi: 10.1080/08917779108248770.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Steinberg, L. (2005). Cognitive and affective development in adolescence. Trends in Cognitive Science, 9(2), 69–74. doi: 10.1016/j.tics.2004.12.005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Steinberg, L. (2007). Risk-taking adolescence: new perspectives from brain and behavioural science. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 16(2), 55–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Suárez, L., Bennett, S., Goldstein, C., & Barlow, D. H. (2009). Understanding anxiety disorders from a 'triple vulnerability' framework. In M. M. Antony & M. B. Stein (Eds.), Oxford handbook of anxiety and related disorders (pp. 153–172). New York: Oxford University Press. doi: 10.1093/oxfordhb/9780195307030.001.0001.Google Scholar
  172. Szabó, M. (2009). Worry in adults and children: developmental differences in the importance of probability and cost judgments. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 31(3), 235–245. doi: 10.1007/s10862-008-9108-y.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Szabó, M. (2010). The short version of the depression anxiety stress scales (DASS-21): factor structure in a young adolescent sample. Journal of Adolescence, 33(1), 1–8. doi: 10.1016/j.adolescence.2009.05.014.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Szabó, M., & Lovibond, P. F. (2006). Anxiety, depression, and tension/stress in children. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 28(3), 192–202. doi: 10.1007/s10862-005-9008-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Taghavi, M. R., Moradi, A. R., Neshat-Doost, H. T., Yule, W., & Dalgleish, T. (2000). Interpretation of ambiguous emotional information in clinically anxious children and adolescents. Cognition and Emotion, 14(6), 809–822. doi: 10.1080/02699930050156645.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Tallis, F., & Eysenck, M. W. (1994). Worry: mechanisms and modulating influences. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 22(01), 37. doi: 10.1017/s1352465800011796.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Tyrer, P., & Baldwin, D. (2006). Generalised anxiety disorder. The Lancet, 368(9553), 2156–2166. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(06)69865-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Uren, T. H., Szabó, M., & Lovibond, P. F. (2004). Probability and cost estimates for social and physical outcomes in social phobia and panic disorder. Anxiety Disorders, 18, 481–498. doi: 10.1016/S0887-6185(03)00028-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. van Widenfelt, B. M., Goedhart, A. W., Treffers, P. D. A., & Goodman, R. (2003). Dutch version of the strengths and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ). European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 12(6), 281–289. doi: 10.1007/s00787-003-0341-3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Vasa, R. A., & Roy, A. K. (Eds.) (2014). Pediatric anxiety disorders: A clinical guide. New York, N.Y.: Springer. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4614-6559-7.
  181. Waddell, C., Offord, D. R., Shepherd, C. A., Hua, J. M., & McEwan, K. (2002). Child psychiatric epidemiology and Canadian public policy-making: the state of the science and the art of the possible. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 47(9), 825–832. doi: 10.1097/01.chi.0000172552.41596.6f.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. Waite, P., & Creswell, C. (2014). Children and adolescents referred for treatment of anxiety disorders: differences in clinical characteristics. Journal of Affective Disorders, 167, 326–332. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2014.06.028.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Waters, A., Craske, M., Bergman, L., & Treanor, M. (2008b). Threat interpretation bias as a vulnerability factor in childhood anxiety disorders. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 46(1), 39–47. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2007.10.002.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Waters, A. M., Mogg, K., Bradley, B. P., & Pine, D. S. (2008a). Attentional bias for emotional faces in children with generalized anxiety disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 47(4), 435–442. doi: 10.1097/chi.0b013e3181642992.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Waters, A., Wharton, T., Zimmer-Gembeck, M., & Craske, M. (2008c). Threat-based cognitive-biases in anxious children: comparison with non-anxious children before and after cognitive behavioural treatment. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 46(3), 358–374. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2008.01.002.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Weems, C. (2008). Developmental trajectories of childhood anxiety: identifying continuity and change in anxious emotion. Developmental Review, 28(4), 488–502. doi: 10.1016/j.dr.2008.01.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Weir, C. J. (2005). Language testing and validation: An evidence-based approach. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillon. doi: 10.1057/9780230514577.
  188. Wells, A. (1995). Meta-cognition and worry: a cognitive model of generalized anxiety disorder. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 23(3), 301–320. doi: 10.1017/S1352465800015897.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Wells, A. (1997). Cognitive therapy of anxiety disorders: a practice manual and conceptual guide. Chichester: Wiley.Google Scholar
  190. Wells, A. (2005) The metacognitive model of GAD: Assessment of meta-worry and relationship with DSM-IV generalized anxiety disorder. Cognitive Therapy & Research, 29(1), 107-121.Google Scholar
  191. Wells, A. (2011). Metacognitive therapy for anxiety and depression (p. 2011). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  192. Wells, A., Clark, D. M., Salkovskis, P., Ludgate, J., Hackmann, A., & Gelder, M. (1995). Social phobia: the role of in-situation safety behaviors in maintaining anxiety and negative beliefs. Behavior Therapy, 26(1), 153–161. doi: 10.1016/S0005-7894(05)80088-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Wilson, E. J., Macleod, C., Mathews, A., & Rutherford, E. M. (2006). The causal role of interpretive bias in anxiety reactivity. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 115(1), 103–111. doi: 10.1037/0021-843x.115.1.103.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Winer, B. J., Brown, D. R., & Michels, K. M. (1991). Statistical principles in experimental design (3rd ed.). New York: McGraw Hill.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of PsychologyThe University of SydneySydneyAustralia
  2. 2.Pain Management Research InstituteUniversity of Sydney at Royal North Shore HospitalSydneyAustralia

Personalised recommendations