Trajectories of Adolescent Psychopathic Traits
- 699 Downloads
There is growing evidence that psychopathic traits are stable across the adolescent developmental period. Yet, no previous studies have examined the longitudinal course of these traits across adolescence. In this study, we examined joint developmental trajectories of grandiose-manipulative traits, callous-unemotional traits, and impulsive-irresponsible behavior and how these trajectories were related to changes in parental behavior and delinquency over time. Participants were 1,068 adolescents from a community sample, who were followed annually over 4 years. Overall, our results showed that a four-class latent class growth model best represented the developmental pattern of adolescent psychopathic traits. Although the majority of adolescents showed low or moderate initial levels that also decreased over time, there was a small group of adolescents who, despite significant decreases in two out of three dimensions, still maintained relatively high levels on all three dimensions. We also found that parental behavior and delinquency developed differently for the groups over time, with the high-decreasing group engaging in more delinquent behavior over time and experiencing more negative parental behavior than any other group. In sum, our findings suggest that there is a group of adolescents at particular risk for negative development.
KeywordsAdolescent psychopathic traits Trajectories Stability Change Parental behavior
- Andershed, H. (2010). Stability and change of psychopathic traits: what do we know? In R. T. Salekin & D. R. Lynam (Eds.), Handbook of child & adolescent psychopathy. New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Andershed, H., Kerr, M., Stattin, H., & Levander, S. (2002). Psychopathic traits in non-referred youths: initial test of a new assessment tool. In E. Blaauw & L. Sheridan (Eds.), Psychopaths: current international perspectives (pp. 131–158). The Hague, the Netherlands: Elsevier.Google Scholar
- Blonigen, D. M., Hicks, B. M., Krueger, R. F., Patrick, C. J., & Iacono, W. G. (2006). Continuity and change in psychopathic traits as measured via normal-range personality: a longitudinal-biometric study. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 115(1), 85–95. doi:10.1037/0021-843X.115.1.85.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Christian, R. E., Frick, P. J., Hill, N. L., & Tyler, L. (1997). Psychopathy and conduct problems in children: II. Implications for subtyping children with conduct problems. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 36(2), 233–241. doi:10.1097/00004583-199702000-00014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Cleckley, H. (1976). The mask of sanity (5th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby.Google Scholar
- Duncan, T. E., Duncan, S. C., & Strycker, L. A. (2006). An introduction to latent variable growth curve modeling (2nd ed.). Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers.Google Scholar
- Farrington, D. P., Ullrich, S., & Salekin, R. T. (2010). Environmental influences on child and adolescent psychopathy. In R. T. Salekin & D. R. Lynam (Eds.), Handbook of child and adolescent psychopathy (pp. 202–230). New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Forth, A. E., & Book, A. S. (2010). Psychopathic traits in children and adolescents: the relationship with antisocial behaviors and aggression. In R. T. Salekin & D. R. Lynam (Eds.), Handbook of child and adolescent psychopathy (pp. 251–283). New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Forth, A. E., Hart, S. D., & Hare, R. D. (1990). Assessment of psychopathy in male young offenders. Psychological Assessment: A Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 2(3), 342–344. doi:10.1037/1040-35220.127.116.112.
- Hare, R. D. (1996). Psychopathy a clinical construct whose time has come. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 23(1), 25–54. doi:10.1177/0093854896023001004.
- Hirschi, T., Hindelang, M. J., & Weiss, J. G. (1980). The status of self-report measures. In M. W. Klein & K. S. Teilman (Eds.), Handbook of criminal justice evaluation (pp. 473–488). Bevery Hills: Sage.Google Scholar
- Kerr, M., & Stattin, H. (2003). Parenting of adolescents: action or reaction? In A. C. Crouter & A. Booth (Eds.), Children’s influence on family dynamics: The neglected side of family relationships (pp. 121–151). Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
- Larsson, H., Andershed, H., & Lichtenstein, P. (2006). A genetic factor explains most of the variation in the psychopathic personality. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 111(3), 411–424.Google Scholar
- Little, T. D. (2013). Longitudinal structural equation modelling. New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Little, R. J. A., & Rubin, D. B. (2002). Statistical analysis with missing data (2nd ed.). New York: John Wiley.Google Scholar
- Lykken, D. T. (1995). The antisocial personalities. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
- Lynam, D. R., Caspi, A., Moffitt, T. E., Loeber, R., & Stouthamer-Loeber, M. (2007). Longitudinal evidence that psychopathy scores in early adolescence predict adult psychopathy. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 116(1), 155–165. doi:10.1037/0021-843X.116.1.155.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Lynam, D. R., Charnigo, R., Moffitt, T. E., Raine, A., Loeber, R., & Stouthamer-Loeber, M. (2009). The stability of psychopathy across adolescence. Development and Psychopathology. Special Issue: Precursors and diverse pathways to personality disorder in children and adolescents: Part 2, 21(4), 1133–1153. doi:10.1017/s0954579409990083.Google Scholar
- Magnusson, D., Dunér, A., & Zetterblom, G. (1975). Adjustment: A longitudinal study. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
- Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. (1998–2010). Mplus user’s guide (6th ed.). Los Angeles: Muthén & Muthén.Google Scholar
- Obradović, J., Pardini, D. A., Long, J. D., & Loeber, R. (2007). Measuring interpersonal callousness in boys from childhood to adolescence: an examination of longitudinal invariance and temporal stability. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 36(3), 276–292. doi:10.1080/15374410701441633.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Persson, S., Stattin, H., & Kerr, M. (2004). Adolescents’ conceptions of family democracy: does their own behaviour play a role? European Journal of Developmental Psychology. Special Issue: Social cognition in adolescence: It’s developmental significance, 1(4), 317–330. doi:10.1080/17405620444000238.Google Scholar
- Poythress, N. G., Dembo, R., Wareham, J., & Greenbaum, P. E. (2006). Construct validity of the Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory (YPI) and the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD) with justice-involved adolescents. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 33(1), 26–55. doi:10.1177/0093854805282518.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Robins, L. N. (1966). Deviant children grown up: A sociological and psychiatric study of sociopathic personality. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins.Google Scholar
- Salihovic, S., Kerr, M., Özdemir, M., & Pakalniskiene, V. (2012). Directions of effects between adolescent psychopathic traits and parental behavior. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 1–13. doi:10.1007/s10802-012-9623-x
- Seagrave, D., & Grisso, T. (2002). Adolescent development and the measurement of juvenile psychopathy. Law and Human Behavior, 26(2), 219–239. doi:10.1023/A:1014696110850.
- White, S. F., & Frick, P. J. (2010). Callous-unemotional traits and their importance to causal models of sever antisocial behavior in youth. In R. T. Salekin & D. R. Lynam (Eds.), Handbook of child and adolescent psychopathy (pp. 135–155). New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Vaughn, M. G., Salas-Wright, C. P., DeLisi, M., & Maynard, B. R. (2013). Violence and externalizing behavior among youth in the United States: is there a severe 5%?. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 00(0), 1–19. doi:10.1177/1541204013478973.