Assessing Fear of Storms and Severe Weather: Validation of the Storm Fear Questionnaire (SFQ)

  • Andrea L. Nelson
  • Valerie Vorstenbosch
  • Martin M. Antony


To date, research on storm phobia has been limited by a lack of validated self-report measures for evaluating the severity of anxiety, phobic avoidance, and distress associated with storms and severe weather. The current research presents the development and validation of the Storm Fear Questionnaire (SFQ), a 15-item self-report questionnaire that assesses the cognitive, affective, and behavioral aspects thought to be associated with Storm Phobia in adults. Three studies were conducted to assess 1) the factor structure, internal consistency, and convergent and discriminant validity of the SFQ, 2) the test-retest reliability of the SFQ, 3) the extent that scores on the SFQ were associated with subjective anxiety ratings during a Behavioral Approach Test (BAT) involving exposure to a virtual thunderstorm, and the extent to which SFQ scores distinguished community participants with versus without a fear of storms. Exploratory factor analyses supported a one-factor model with good internal consistency (Cronbach’s α = .95), good convergent and discriminant validity with self-report measures of anxiety, worry, depression, and other specific phobias, and acceptable test-retest reliability. Moreover, there was a significant positive association between SFQ scores and anxiety ratings following the BAT involving exposure to a virtual thunderstorm and participants with a high fear of storms reported significantly higher SFQ scores than those with a low fear of storms. In sum, the SFQ has good psychometric properties and appears to be a valuable tool for assessing the severity of fear associated with storms and severe weather. Research evaluating the diagnostic and clinical utility of the SFQ is still needed.


Phobias Fear Measurement Factor analysis Storm Severe weather 



This research was supported by a Joseph-Armand Bombardier Canadian Graduate Scholarships – Doctoral Award, from the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council (SSHRC) to the first author. The authors thank Stephanie Waechter, MA for her assistance with the data analyses and Erik Z. Woody, PhD for his assistance with the data analyses and for providing feedback on the manuscript. Portions of this research were presented at the meeting of the Canadian Association for Cognitive and Behavioural Therapies in Toronto, ON, in May, 2011 and at the meeting of the Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies in Toronto, ON, in November, 2011.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andrea L. Nelson
    • 1
  • Valerie Vorstenbosch
    • 2
  • Martin M. Antony
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of WaterlooWaterlooCanada
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyRyerson UniversityTorontoCanada

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