Emotional Intelligence in Social Phobia and Other Anxiety Disorders

  • Laura J. Summerfeldt
  • Patricia H. Kloosterman
  • Martin M. Antony
  • Randi E. McCabe
  • James D. A. Parker
Article

Abstract

This study examined the associations between clinical anxiety, domains of emotional intelligence (EI), and three clinician-rated indices of maladjustment. Of key interest was whether social phobia (SP) is unique among anxiety disorders in being characterized by lower levels of Interpersonal and, particularly, Intrapersonal EI, and whether these differentially predict maladjustment. Individuals with SP (n = 169) obsessive-compulsive disorder (n = 65) and panic disorder (n = 64), and nonclinical controls (n = 169) completed the short form self-report Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i: S). All anxiety disorder groups showed lower total EI than controls, and differed among themselves with the SP group displaying the lowest levels of total EI and lower scores on two EQ-i:S subscales (Interpersonal and, more robustly, Intrapersonal). The Intrapersonal dimension alone predicted all indices of greater maladjustment in the SP group. These findings indicate a negative relationship between anxiety disorders and EI, and reaffirm the foremost link between Intrapersonal EI and SP and its functional outcomes.

Keywords

Emotional intelligence Anxiety disorder Social phobia Adjustment Comorbidity 

References

  1. Alden, L. E., & Cappe, R. (1986). Interpersonal process training for shy clients. In W. H. Jones, J. M. Cheek, & S. R. Briggs (Eds.), Shyness: Perspectives on research and treatment (pp. 343–355). New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  2. American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text revision). Washington, DC: Author.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Antony, M. M., Bieling, P. J., Cox, B. J., Enns, M. W., & Swinson, R. P. (1998a). Psychometric properties of the 42-item and 21-item versions of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) in clinical groups and a community sample. Psychological Assessment, 10, 176–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Antony, M. M., Roth, D., Swinson, R. P., Huta, V., & Devins, G. M. (1998b). Illness intrusiveness in individuals with panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, or social phobia. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 186, 311–315.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Austin, E. J., Parker, J. D. A., Petrides, K. V., & Saklofske, D. H. (2008). Emotional intelligence. In G. J. Boyle, G. Matthews, & D. H. Saklofske (Eds.), The SAGE handbook of personality theory and assessment: Personality theories and models (Vol. 1, pp. 576–596). Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
  6. Bar-On, R. (1997). Bar-On emotional quotient inventory (EQ-I): Technical manual. Toronto: MultiHealth Systems.Google Scholar
  7. Bar-On, R. (2002). Bar-On emotional quotient inventory: Short version—technical manual. Toronto: Multi-Health Systems.Google Scholar
  8. Beck, A. T., Emery, G., & Greenberg, R. L. (2005). Anxiety disorders and phobias: A cognitive perspective. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  9. Beidel, D. C., & Turner, S. M. (2007). Etiology of social anxiety disorder. In D. C. Beidel & S. M. Turner (Eds.), Shy children, phobic adults: Nature and treatment of social anxiety disorders (2nd ed., pp. 91–119). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Brown, T. A., Campbell, L. A., Lehman, C. L., Grisham, J. R., & Macell, R. B. (2001). Current and lifetime comorbidity of the DSM-IV anxiety and mood disorders in a large clinical sample. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 110, 585–599.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cartwright-Hatton, S., Tschernitz, N., & Gomersall, H. (2005). Social anxiety in children: social skills deficit, or cognitive distortion? Behaviour Research and Therapy, 43, 131–141.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Clark, D. M., & Wells, A. (1995). A cognitive model of social phobia. In R. G. Heimberg, M. R. Liebowitz, D. A. Hope, & F. R. Schneier (Eds.), Social phobia: Diagnosis, assessment, and treatment (pp. 69–93). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  13. Cox, B. J., Swinson, R. P., Shulman, I. D., & Bourdeau, D. (1995). Alexithymia in panic disorder and social phobia. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 36, 195–198.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Creed, A. T., & Funder, D. C. (1998). Social anxiety: from the inside and outside. Personality and Individual Differences, 25, 19–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dannahy, L., & Stopa, L. (2007). Post-event processing in social anxiety. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 45, 1207–1219.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. First, M. B., Spitzer, R. L., Gibbon, M., & Williams, J. B. W. (1996). Structured clinical interview for DSM-IV axis I disorders—patient edition. New York: New York State Psychiatric Institute, Biometrics Research Department.Google Scholar
  17. Fischetti, M., Curran, J. P., & Wessberg, H. W. (1977). Sense of timing: a skill deficit in heterosexual-socially anxious males. Behavior Modification, 1, 179–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Freyberger, H. (1977). Supportive psychotherapeutic techniques in primary and secondary alexithymia. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 28, 337–342.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Frijda, N. H. (1986). The emotions. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  20. Fukunishi, I., Kikuchi, M., Wogan, J., & Takubo, M. (1997). Secondary alexithymia as a state reaction in panic disorder and social phobia. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 38, 166–170.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Furnham, A. (1986). Response bias, social desirability and dissimulation. Personality and Individual Differences, 7, 385–400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Fydrich, T., Chambless, D. L., Perry, K. J., Buergener, F., & Beazley, M. B. (1998). Behavioral assessment of social performance: a rating system for social phobia. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 36, 995–1010.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Gross, J. J. (2002). Emotion regulation: affective, cognitive, and social consequences. Psychophysiology, 39, 281–291.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hofmann, S. G. (2000). Treatment of social phobia: potential mediators and moderators. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 7, 3–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hofmann, S. G., & Scepkowski, L. A. (2006). Social self-reappraisal therapy for social phobia: preliminary findings. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 20, 45–57.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Jacobs, M., Snow, J., Geraci, M., Vythilingam, M., Blair, R. J. R., Charney, D. S., et al. (2008). Association between level of emotional intelligence and severity of anxiety in generalized social phobia. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 22, 1487–1495.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kalmar, D. A., & Sternberg, R. J. (1988). Theory knitting: an integrative approach to theory development. Philosophical Psychology, 1, 153–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kimbrel, N. (2008). A model of the development and maintenance of generalized social phobia. Clinical Psychology Review, 28, 592–612.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kring, A. M., & Werner, K. H. (2004). Emotion regulation and psychopathology. In P. Philippot & R. S. Feldman (Eds.), The regulation of emotion (pp. 359–385). Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  30. Lane, R. D., & Schwartz, G. E. (1987). Levels of emotional awareness: a cognitive-developmental theory and its application to psychopathology. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 144, 133–143.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Lock, S., & Barrett, P. M. (2003). A longitudinal study of developmental differences in universal preventive intervention for child anxiety. Behaviour Change, 20, 183–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Lovibond, S. H., & Lovibond, P. F. (1995). Manual for the depression anxiety stress scales (2nd ed.). Sydney: Psychology Foundation.Google Scholar
  33. Mayer, J. D., Roberts, R. D., & Barsade, S. G. (2008). Human abilities: emotional intelligence. Annual Review of Psychology, 59, 507–536.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Mayer, J. D., Salovey, P., & Caruso, D. (2001). Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT). Toronto: Multi-Health Systems.Google Scholar
  35. Mayer, J. D., Salovey, P., & Caruso, D. R. (2004). Emotional intelligence: theory, findings, and implications. Psychological Inquiry, 15, 197–215.Google Scholar
  36. Mendlowicz, M. V., & Stein, M. B. (2000). Quality of life in individuals with anxiety disorders. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 157, 669–682.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Mennin, D. S., Holaway, R. M., Fresco, D. M., Moore, M. T., & Heimberg, R. G. (2007). Delineating components of emotion and its dysregulation in anxiety and mood psychopathology. Behavior Therapy, 38, 284–302.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Neal, J., & Edelmann, R. (2003). The etiology of social phobia: toward a developmental profile. Clinical Psychology Review, 23, 761–786.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Novick-Kline, P., Turk, C. L., Mennin, D. S., Hoyt, E. A., & Gallagher, C. L. (2005). Level of emotional awareness as a differentiating variable between individuals with and without generalized anxiety disorder. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 19, 557–572.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Parker, J. D. A. (2005). The relevance of emotional intelligence for clinical psychology. In R. Schulze & R. D. Richard (Eds.), Emotional intelligence: An international handbook (pp. 271–287). Ashland: Hogrefe.Google Scholar
  41. Parker, J. D. A., Taylor, G., & Bagby, R. M. (2001). The relationship between emotional intelligence and alexithymia. Personality and Individual Differences, 30, 107–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Parker, J. D. A., Summerfeldt, L. J., Hogan, M. J., & Majeski, S. (2004). Emotional intelligence and academic success: examining the transition from high school to university. Personality and Individual Differences, 36, 163–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Paulhus, D. L. (1991). Measurement and control of response bias. In J. P. Robinson, P. R. Shaver, & L. S. Wrightsman (Eds.), Measures of personality and social psychological attitudes: Measures of social psychological attitudes (Vol. 1, pp. 17–59). San Diego: Academic.Google Scholar
  44. Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. M., Lee, J., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2003). Common method variance in behavioral research: a critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. The Journal of Applied Psychology, 88, 879–903.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Rapee, R. M., & Heimberg, R. G. (1997). A cognitive-behavioral model of anxiety in social phobia. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 35, 741–756.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Rapee, R. M., & Lim, L. (1992). Discrepancy between self and observer ratings of performance in social phobics. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 101, 727–731.Google Scholar
  47. Rottenberg, J., & Gross, J. J. (2003). When emotion goes wrong: realizing the promise of affective science. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 10, 227–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Saarni, C. (2000). Emotional competence: A developmental perspective. In R. Bar-On & J. D. A. Parker (Eds.), Handbook of emotional intelligence (pp. 68–91). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  49. Schneier, F. R., Heckelman, L. R., Garfinkell, R., Campeas, R., Fallon, B. A., Gitow, A., et al. (1994). Functional impairment in social phobia. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 55, 322–331.Google Scholar
  50. Segrin, C., & Kinney, T. (1995). Social skills deficits among the socially anxious: rejection from others and loneliness. Motivation and Emotion, 19, 1–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Skodol, A. E., Link, B. G., Shrout, P. E., & Horwath, E. (1988). The revision of axis V in DSM-III-R: should symptoms have been included? The American Journal of Psychiatry, 145, 825–829.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Sloan, D. M., & Kring, A. M. (2007). Measuring changes in emotion during psychotherapy: conceptual and methodological issues. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 14, 307–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Stangier, U., Heidenreich, T., & Schermelleh-Engel, K. (2006). Safety behaviors and social performance in patients with generalized social phobia. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 20, 17–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Stopa, L., & Clark, D. M. (1993). Cognitive processes in social phobia. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 31, 255–267.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Stopa, L., & Clark, D. M. (2000). Social phobia and the interpretation of social events. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 38, 273–283.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Summerfeldt, L. J., & Antony, M. M. (2002). Structured and semistructured diagnostic interviews. In M. M. Antony & D. H. Barlow (Eds.), Handbook of assessment and treatment planning for psychological disorders (pp. 3–37). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  57. Summerfeldt, L. J., Kloosterman, P. H., Antony, M. M., & Parker, J. D. A. (2006). Social anxiety, emotional intelligence, and interpersonal adjustment. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 28, 57–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (1996). Using multivariate statistics (3rd ed.). New York: HarperCollins.Google Scholar
  59. Taylor, G. J., Bagby, R. M., & Parker, J. D. A. (1997). Disorders of affect regulation: Alexithymia in medical and psychiatric illness. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Telch, M. J., Schmidt, N. B., Jaimez, T. L., Jacquin, K. M., & Harrington, P. J. (1995). Impact of cognitive-behavioral treatment on quality of life in panic disorder patients. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 63, 823–830.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Turk, C. L., Heimberg, R. G., Luterek, J. A., Mennin, D. S., & Fresco, D. M. (2005). Emotion dysregulation in generalized anxiety disorder: a comparison with social anxiety disorder. Cognitive Therapy and Research., 29, 89–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Turk, C. L., Heimberg, R. G., & Magee, L. (2008). Social anxiety disorder. In D. H. Barlow (Ed.), Clinical handbook of psychological disorders: A step-by-step treatment manual (4th ed., pp. 123–163). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  63. Vertue, F. M. (2003). From adaptive emotion to dysfunction: an attachment perspective on social anxiety disorder. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 7, 170–191.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Wells, A. (1997). Cognitive therapy of anxiety disorders: A practice manual and conceptual guide. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  65. Wood, L. M., Parker, J. D. A., & Keefer, K. V. (2009). The emotion quotient inventory: A review of the relevant research. In C. Stough, D. H. Saklofske, & J. D. A. Parker (Eds.), Assessing emotional intelligence: Theory, research and applications (pp. 67–84). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Zanarini, M. C., & Frankenburg, F. R. (2001). Attainment and maintenance of reliability of axis I and II disorders over the course of a longitudinal study. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 42, 369–374.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Laura J. Summerfeldt
    • 1
    • 2
  • Patricia H. Kloosterman
    • 1
    • 3
  • Martin M. Antony
    • 2
    • 4
  • Randi E. McCabe
    • 2
  • James D. A. Parker
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyTrent UniversityPeterboroughCanada
  2. 2.Anxiety Treatment and Research Centre, St. Joseph’s Healthcare & Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral NeurosciencesMcMaster UniversityHamiltonCanada
  3. 3.Department of PsychologyQueen’s UniversityKingstonCanada
  4. 4.Department of PsychologyRyerson UniversityTorontoCanada

Personalised recommendations