## Abstract

In this article, I introduce a framework—the What, Who, and How of mathematics—that emerged from studying my teaching of prospective teachers and their views of the social and political dimensions of mathematics teaching and learning. The What, Who, How framework asks us to consider What messages we send about mathematics and the world, Whose perspectives are represented in mathematics, and How mathematical concepts and our world are related. I situate each aspect of the framework in the literature on social justice and critical mathematics and provide examples of prospective teachers’ views. The What, Who, How serves as a tool to understand prospective teachers’ views, to navigate a broad range of literature on social justice mathematics, and a means of informing the practice of teachers and teacher educators.

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## Notes

2 % identify as White, Hispanic, 2 % as Black, 4 % as Asian, 2 % as American Indian, 11 % as other or multiple races, and 4 % did not respond; 7 % identify as Hispanic, across all races.

The rest identified as male; none indicated another gender identity.

100 % have at least one parent/guardian with a high school degree or higher, and 45 % have at least one parent/guardian with a master’s degree or higher.

My use of the term resistance is not intended to downplay the legitimacy of the concerns the PTs raise about these perspectives.

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Felton-Koestler, M.D. Mathematics education as sociopolitical: prospective teachers’ views of the What, Who, and How.
*J Math Teacher Educ* **20, **49–74 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10857-015-9315-x

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10857-015-9315-x

### Keywords

- Mathematics teacher education
- Social justice
- Equity
- Diversity
- Teacher beliefs