Skip to main content

Mathematics education as sociopolitical: prospective teachers’ views of the What, Who, and How

Abstract

In this article, I introduce a framework—the What, Who, and How of mathematics—that emerged from studying my teaching of prospective teachers and their views of the social and political dimensions of mathematics teaching and learning. The What, Who, How framework asks us to consider What messages we send about mathematics and the world, Whose perspectives are represented in mathematics, and How mathematical concepts and our world are related. I situate each aspect of the framework in the literature on social justice and critical mathematics and provide examples of prospective teachers’ views. The What, Who, How serves as a tool to understand prospective teachers’ views, to navigate a broad range of literature on social justice mathematics, and a means of informing the practice of teachers and teacher educators.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1

Notes

  1. 2 % identify as White, Hispanic, 2 % as Black, 4 % as Asian, 2 % as American Indian, 11 % as other or multiple races, and 4 % did not respond; 7 % identify as Hispanic, across all races.

  2. The rest identified as male; none indicated another gender identity.

  3. 100 % have at least one parent/guardian with a high school degree or higher, and 45 % have at least one parent/guardian with a master’s degree or higher.

  4. My use of the term resistance is not intended to downplay the legitimacy of the concerns the PTs raise about these perspectives.

References

  • Aguirre, J. M. (2009). Privileging mathematics and equity in teacher education: Framework, counter-resistance strategies, and reflections from a Latina mathematics educator. In B. Greer, S. Mukhopadhyay, A. B. Powell, & S. Nelson-Barber (Eds.), Culturally responsive mathematics education (pp. 295–319). New York: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Anderson, G. L., Herr, K., & Nihlen, A. S. (2007). Studying your own school: An educator’s guide to practitioner action research (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Apple, M. W. (2000). Official knowledge: Democratic education in a conservative age (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ball, D. L., Hill, H. C., & Bass, H. (2005). Knowing mathematics for teaching: Who knows mathematics well enough to teach third grade, and how can we decide? American Educator, 29(3), 14–22.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ball, D. L., Thames, M. H., & Phelps, G. (2008). Content knowledge for teaching: What makes it special? Journal of Teacher Education, 59(5), 389–407.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Barta, J., Sánchez, L., & Barta, J. (2009). Math in the milpa. Teaching Children Mathematics, 16(2), 90–97.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bartell, T. G. (2012). Is this teaching mathematics for social justice? Teachers’ conceptions of mathematics classrooms for social justice. In A. A. Wager & D. W. Stinson (Eds.), Teaching mathematics for social justice: Conversations with educators (pp. 113–125). Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bartell, T. G. (2013). Learning to teach mathematics for social justice: Negotiating social justice and mathematical goals. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 44(1), 129–163.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Brantlinger, A. (2005). The geometry of inequality. In E. Gutstein & B. Peterson (Eds.), Rethinking mathematics: Teaching social justice by the numbers (pp. 97–100). Milwaukee, WI: Rethinking Schools.

    Google Scholar 

  • Brantlinger, A. (2013). Between politics and equations: Teaching critical mathematics in a remedial secondary classroom. American Educational Research Journal, 50(5), 1050–1080. doi:10.3102/0002831213487195.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Carpenter, T. P., Fennema, E., & Franke, M. L. (1996). Cognitively guided instruction: A knowledge base for reform in primary mathematics instruction. The Elementary School Journal, 97(1), 3–20.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Carpenter, T. P., Fennema, E., Levi, L., Franke, M. L., & Empson, S. B. (2000). Children’s mathematics: A guide for workshop leaders. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

    Google Scholar 

  • Civil, M. (2002). Everyday mathematics, mathematicians’ mathematics, and school mathematics: Can we bring them together? Journal for Research in Mathematics Education. Monograph, 11, 40–62.

    Google Scholar 

  • Civil, M. (2007). Building on community knowledge: An avenue to equity in mathematics education. In N. S. Nasir & P. Cobb (Eds.), Improving access to mathematics: Diversity and equity in the classroom (pp. 105–117). New York, NY: Teachers College Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Civil, M., & Andrade, R. (2002). Transitions between home and school mathematics: Rays of hope amidst the passing clouds. In G. de Abreu & N. C. Presmeg (Eds.), Transitions between contexts of mathematical practices (pp. 149–169). Dordrecth: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Civil, M., & Kahn, L. (2001). Mathematics instruction developed from a garden theme. Teaching Children Mathematics, 7(7), 400–405.

    Google Scholar 

  • Common Core State Standards Initiative. (2010). Common core state standards for mathematics. Washington, DC: National Governors Association Center for Best Practices and the Council of Chief State School Officers. Retrieved from http://www.corestandards.org/assets/CCSI_MathStandards.pdf.

  • D’Ambrosio, U. (2001). What is Ethnomathematics, and how can it help children in school? Teaching Children Mathematics, 7(6), 308–310.

    Google Scholar 

  • D’Ambrosio, B., Frankenstein, M., Gutiérrez, R., Kastberg, S., Martin, D. B., Moschkovich, J., & Barnes, D. (2013). Addressing racism. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 44(1), 23–36.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Doerr, H. M., & English, L. D. (2003). A modeling perspective on students’ mathematical reasoning about data. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 34(2), 110–136. doi:10.2307/30034902.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • English, L. D. (2010). Modeling with complex data in the primary school. In R. Lesh, P. L. Galbraith, C. R. Haines, & A. Hurford (Eds.), Modeling students’ mathematical modeling competencies: ICTMA 13 (pp. 287–299). Boston, MA: Springer. doi:10.1007/978-1-4419-0561-1.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Ensign, J. (2005). Helping teachers use students’ home cultures in mathematics lessons: Developmental stages of becoming effective teachers of diverse students. In A. J. Rodriguez & R. S. Kitchen (Eds.), Preparing mathematics and science teachers for diverse classrooms: Promising strategies for transformative pedagogy (pp. 225–242). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

    Google Scholar 

  • Esmonde, I. (2011). Snips and snails and puppy dogs’ tails: Genderism and mathematics education. For the Learning of Mathematics, 31(2), 27–31.

    Google Scholar 

  • Felton, M. D. (2010a). Is math politically neutral? Teaching Children Mathematics, 17(2), 60–63.

    Google Scholar 

  • Felton, M. D. (2010b). The What, How, and Who of mathematics: Challenges in teaching mathematics as a social and political activity. (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from Dissertations and Theses: Full Text, ProQuest. (Publication No. AAT 3437111).

  • Felton, M. D. (2012). Test scores in the US: Introducing the data to pre-service teachers. Teaching for Excellence and Equity in Mathematics, 4(1), 7–14.

    Google Scholar 

  • Felton, M. D. (2014). Why teach mathematics? [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://www.nctm.org/Publications/Mathematics-Teaching-in-Middle-School/Blog/Why-Teach-Mathematics_/.

  • Felton, M. D., & Koestler, C. (2012). “Questions and answers can mean something”: Supporting critical reflection in mathematics education. In R. Flessner, G. R. Miller, K. M. Patrizio, & J. R. Horwitz (Eds.), Agency through teacher education: Reflection, community, and learning (pp. 25–35). Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

    Google Scholar 

  • Felton, M. D., & Koestler, C. (2015). “Math is all around us and… we can use it to help us”: Teacher agency in mathematics education through critical reflection. The New Educator, 11(4).

  • Felton, M. D., Simic-Muller, K., & Menéndez, J. M. (2012). “Math isn’t just numbers or algorithms”: Mathematics for social justice in preservice K-8 content courses. In L. J. Jacobsen, J. Mistele, & B. Sriraman (Eds.), Mathematics teacher education in the public interest: Equity and social justice (pp. 231–252). Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing.

    Google Scholar 

  • Felton-Koestler, M. D. (forthcoming). Using mathematics to investigate social and political issues: The case of “illegal immigration.” In D. White, S. Crespo, & M. Civil (Eds.), Teacher educators: Facilitating conversations with prospective teachers about inequities in mathematics classrooms. Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing.

  • Flores, A. (2007). Examining disparities in mathematics education: Achievement gap or opportunity gap? The High School Journal, 91(1), 29–42.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Frankenstein, M. (1995). Equity in mathematics education: Class in the world outside the class. In W. G. Secada, E. Fennema, & L. B. Adajian (Eds.), New directions for equity in mathematics education (pp. 165–190). New York: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Frankenstein, M. (1997). In addition to the mathematics: Including equity issues in the curriculum. In J. Trentacosta & M. J. Kenny (Eds.), Multicultural and gender equity in the mathematics classroom (pp. 10–22). Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.

    Google Scholar 

  • Frankenstein, M. (1998). Reading the world with math: Goals for a critical mathematical literacy curriculum. In E. Lee, D. Menkart, & M. Okazawa-Rey (Eds.), Beyond heroes and holidays: A practical guide to K-12 anti-racist, multicultural education and staff development (pp. 306–313). Washington, DC: Network of Educators on the Americas.

    Google Scholar 

  • Frankenstein, M. (2009). Developing a critical mathematical numeracy through real real-life word problems. In L. Verschaffel, B. Greer, W. Van Dooren, & S. Mukhopadhyay (Eds.), Words and worlds: Modelling verbal descriptions of situations (pp. 111–130). Boston, MA: Sense Publishers.

    Google Scholar 

  • Freudenthal, H. (1968). Why to teach mathematics so as to be useful. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 1(1–2), 3–8.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gainsburg, J. (2009). How and why secondary mathematics teachers make (or don’t make) real-world connections in teaching. In L. Verschaffel, B. Greer, W. Van Dooren, & S. Mukhopadhyay (Eds.), Words and worlds: Modelling verbal descriptions of situations (pp. 265–281). New York, NY: Sense Publishers.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gates, P., & Zevenbergen, R. J. (2009). Foregrounding social justice in mathematics teacher education. Journal of Mathematics Teacher Education, 12(3), 161–170. doi:10.1007/s10857-009-9105-4.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • González, N., Andrade, R., Civil, M., & Moll, L. (2001). Bridging funds of distributed knowledge: Creating zones of practices in mathematics. Journal of Education for Students Placed at Risk, 6(1&2), 115–132.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Greer, B., Mukhopadhyay, S., Powell, A. B., & Nelson-Barber, S. (Eds.). (2009a). Culturally responsive mathematics education. New York: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Greer, B., Verschaffel, L., Van Dooren, W., & Mukhopadhyay, S. (2009b). Introduction: Making sense of word problems: Past, present, and future. In L. Verschaffel, B. Greer, W. Van Dooren, & S. Mukhopadhyay (Eds.), Words and worlds: Modelling verbal descriptions of situations (pp. xi–xxviii). Boston, MA: Sense Publishers.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gregson, S. A. (2013). Negotiating social justice teaching: One full-time teacher’s practice viewed from the trenches. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 44(1), 1–35.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gutiérrez, R. (2007a). (Re)defining equity: The importance of a critical perspective. In N. Nasir & P. Cobb (Eds.), Improving access to mathematics: Diversity and equity in the classroom (pp. 37–50). New York, NY: Teachers College Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gutiérrez, R. (2007b). Context matters: Equity, success, and the future of mathematics education. In T. Lamberg & L. R. Wiest (Eds.), In Proceedings of the annual meeting of the north american chapter of the international group for the psychology of mathematics education (29th, Lake Tahoe, Nevada) (pp. 1–18). Reno, NV: University of Nevada, Reno.

  • Gutiérrez, R. (2008). A “gap-gazing” fetish in mathematics education? Problematizing research on the achievement gap. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 39(4), 357–364.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gutstein, E. (2005a). Math, maps, and misrepresentation. In E. Gutstein & B. Peterson (Eds.), Rethinking mathematics: Teaching social justice by the numbers (pp. 111–116). Milwaukee, WI: Rethinking Schools.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gutstein, E. (2005b). South Central Los Angeles: Ratios and density in urban areas. In E. Gutstein & B. Peterson (Eds.), Rethinking mathematics: Teaching social justice by the numbers (pp. 101–102). Milwaukee, WI: Rethinking Schools.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gutstein, E. (2006). Reading and writing the world with mathematics: Toward a pedagogy for social justice. New York: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Harris, M. (1997). An example of traditional women’s work as a mathematics resource. In Powell A. B. & Frankenstein M. (Eds.), Ethnomathematics: Challenging Eurocentrism in mathematics education (pp. 251–222). Albany: SUNY. (Reprinted from For the Learning of Mathematics, 7(3), 26–28, 1987).

  • Herzig, A. H. (2004). “Slaughtering this beautiful math”: Graduate women choosing and leaving mathematics. Gender and Education, 16(3), 379–395.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Joseph, G. G. (1997). Foundations of Eurocentrism in mathematics. In Powell A. B.,& Frankenstein M. (Eds.), Ethnomathematics: Challenging Eurocentrism in mathematics education (pp. 61–81). Albany: SUNY. (Revised from Race and Class, 28(3), 13–28, 1987).

  • Joseph, G. G. (2010). The crest of the peacock: Non-European roots of mathematics (3rd ed.). Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Katz, V. K., & Lumpkin, B. (1995). The relationship of Egyptian to Greek mathematics. History and Pedagogy of Mathematics Newsletter, 35, 10–13.

    Google Scholar 

  • Koestler, C. (2010). (Re)envisioning mathematics education: Examining equity and social justice in an elementary mathematics methods course. (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from Dissertations and Theses: Full Text, ProQuest. (Publication No. AAT 3437187).

  • Koestler, C. (2012). Beyond apples, puppy dogs, and ice cream: Preparing teachers to teach mathematics for equity and social justice. In A. A. Wager & D. W. Stinson (Eds.), Teaching mathematics for social justice: Conversations with educators (pp. 81–97). Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kozol, J. (2005). The shame of the nation: The restoration of apartheid schooling in America. New York: Crown.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ladson-Billings, G. (2006). From the achievement gap to the education debt: Understanding achievement in US schools. Educational Researcher, 35(7), 3–12.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Leonard, J. (2008). Culturally specific pedagogy in the mathematics classroom: Strategies for teachers and students. New York, NY: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Leonard, J., & Guha, S. (2002). Creating cultural relevance in teaching and learning mathematics. Teaching Children Mathematics, 9(2), 114–118.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lesh, R., & Doerr, H. M. (Eds.). (2003). Beyond constructivism: Models and modeling perspectives on mathematics problem solving, learning, and teaching. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lesh, R., & Harel, G. (2003). Problem solving, modeling, and local conceptual development. Mathematical Thinking and Learning, 5(2&3), 157–189.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lubienski, S. T. (2002). Research, reform, and equity in US mathematics education. Mathematical Thinking and Learning, 4(2–3), 103–125.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Martin, D. B. (2006). Mathematics learning and participation as racialized forms of experience: African American parents speak on the struggle for mathematics literacy. Mathematical Thinking and Learning, 8(3), 197–229.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Martin, D. B. (2007). Mathematics learning and participation in the African American context: The co-construction of identity in two intersecting realms of experience. In N. S. Nasir & P. Cobb (Eds.), Improving access to mathematics: Diversity and equity in the classroom. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Martin, D. B. (2009). Researching race in mathematics education. Teachers College Record, 111(2), 295–338.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mcintosh, P. (1990). White privilege: Unpacking the invisible knapsack. Independent School, 49(2), 31–36.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mistele, J. M., & Spielman, L. J. (2009). The impact of “math for social analysis” on mathematics anxiety in elementary preservice teachers. In Swars, S. L., Stinson, D. W. & Lemons-Smith S. (Eds.), Proceedings of the annual meeting of the north american chapter of the international group for the psychology of mathematics education (31st, Atlanta, GA: Georgia State University) (Vol. 5, pp. 483–487).

  • Moses, R. P., & Cobb, C. E. (2001). Radical equations: Civil rights from Mississippi to the algebra project. Boston, MA: Beacon Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mukhopadhyay, S., Powell, A. B., & Frankenstein, M. (2009). An ethnomathematical perspective on culturally responsive mathematics education. In B. Greer, S. Mukhopadhyay, A. B. Powell, & S. Nelson-Barber (Eds.), culturally responsive mathematics education (pp. 65–84). New York, NY: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  • National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. (2000). Principles and standards for school mathematics. Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.

    Google Scholar 

  • National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. (2014). Principles to actions: Ensuring mathematical success for all. Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.

    Google Scholar 

  • Palm, T. (2009). Theory of authentic task situations. In L. Verschaffel, B. Greer, W. Van Dooren, & S. Mukhopadhyay (Eds.), Words and worlds: Modelling verbal descriptions of situations (pp. 3–19). Boston, MA: Sense Publishers.

    Google Scholar 

  • Perkins, I., & Flores, A. (2002). Mathematical notations and procedures of recent immigrant students. Mathematics Teaching in the Middle School, 7(6), 346–351.

    Google Scholar 

  • Philipp, R. A. (2007). Mathematics teachers’ beliefs and affect. In F. K. Lester (Ed.), Second handbook of research on mathematics teaching and learning (Vol. 1, pp. 257–315). Charlotte, NC: Information Age.

    Google Scholar 

  • Powell, A. B., & Frankenstein, M. (Eds.). (1997). Ethnomathematics: Challenging Eurocentrism in mathematics education. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Powell, A. B., & Temple, O. L. (2001). Seeding Ethnomathematics with oware: Sankofa. Teaching Children Mathematics, 7(6), 369–375.

    Google Scholar 

  • Richert, A. E. (1992). Voice and power in teaching and learning to teach. In L. Valli (Ed.), Reflective teacher education: Cases and critiques (pp. 187–197). Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rodriquez, A. J. (2005). Teachers’ resistance to ideological and pedagogical change: Definitions, theoretical framework, and significance. In A. J. Rodriguez & R. S. Kitchen (Eds.), Preparing mathematics and science teachers for diverse classrooms: Promising strategies for transformative pedagogy (pp. 1–16). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

    Google Scholar 

  • Secada, W. G. (1989). Educational equity versus equality of education: An alternative conception. In W. G. Secada (Ed.), Equity in education (pp. 68–88). Philadelphia, PA: The Falmer Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Singapore Ministry of Education. (2003). Primary Mathematics 4A: Textbook (US Edition). Singapore: Times Media Private Ltd.

    Google Scholar 

  • Skott, J. (2013). Understanding the role of the teacher in emerging classroom practices: Searching for patterns of participation. ZDM, 45(4), 547–559. doi:10.1007/s11858-013-0500-z.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Skovsmose, O. (1994a). Towards a critical mathematics education. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 27(1), 35–57.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Skovsmose, O. (1994b). Towards a philosophy of critical mathematics education. Dordrecth, Netherlands: Kluwer.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Skovsmose, O. (2001). Landscapes of investigation. ZDM, 33(4), 123–132.

    Google Scholar 

  • Spielman, L. J. (2009). Mathematics education in the public interest: Preservice teachers’ engagement with and reframing of mathematics. In S. L. Swars, D. W. Stinson, & S. Lemons-Smith (Eds.), Proceedings of the annual meeting of the north american chapter of the international group for the psychology of mathematics education (31st, Atlanta, GA: Georgia State University) (Vol. 5, pp. 408–415).

  • Stevens, A. C., Sharp, J. M., & Nelson, B. (2001). The intersection of two unlikely worlds: Ratios and drums. Teaching Children Mathematics, 7(6), 376–383.

    Google Scholar 

  • Stinson, D. W., & Wager, A. A. (2012). A sojourn into the empowering uncertainties of teaching and learning mathematics for social change. In A. A. Wager & D. W. Stinson (Eds.), Teaching mathematics for social justice: Conversations with educators (pp. 3–18). Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.

    Google Scholar 

  • Stocker, D. (2008). Maththatmatters: A teacher resource linking math and social justice (2nd ed.). Ottawa, ON: Canadian Center for Policy Alternatives.

    Google Scholar 

  • Strauss, A. L., & Corbin, J. M. (1998). Basics of qualitative research: Techniques and procedures for developing grounded theory (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

    Google Scholar 

  • Tate, W. F. (1994). Race, retrenchment, and the reform of school mathematics. The Phi Delta Kappan, 75(6), 477–480.

    Google Scholar 

  • Turner, E. E. (2012). Critical mathematical agency in the overcrowding at Francis Middle School project. In E. Tan, A. C. Barton, E. E. Turner, & M. V. Gutiérrez (Eds.), Empowering science and mathematics education in urban schools. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago.

    Google Scholar 

  • Turner, E. E., Drake, C., McDuffie, A. R., Aguirre, J., Bartell, T. G., & Foote, M. Q. (2012a). Promoting equity in mathematics teacher preparation: A framework for advancing teacher learning of children’s multiple mathematics knowledge bases. Journal of Mathematics Teacher Education, 15(1), 67–82. doi:10.1007/s10857-011-9196-6.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Turner, E. E., Gutiérrez, R. J., & Varley Gutiérrez, M. (2012b). This project opened my eyes: Preservice elementary teachers learning to connect school, community and mathematics. In L. J. Jacobsen, J. Mistele, & B. Sriraman (Eds.), Mathematics teacher education in the public interest: Equity and social justice (pp. 183–212). Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing.

    Google Scholar 

  • Turner, E. E., Varley Gutiérrez, M., Simic-Muller, K., & Díez-Palomar, J. (2009). “Everything is math in the whole world”: Integrating critical and community knowledge in authentic mathematical investigations with elementary Latina/o students. Mathematical Thinking and Learning, 11(3), 136–157. doi:10.1080/10986060903013382.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, M. (1999). Context problems and assessment: Ideas from the Netherlands. In I. Thompson (Ed.), Issues in teaching numeracy in primary schools (pp. 130–142). Maidenhead, UK: Open University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Varley Gutiérrez, M. (2009). “I thought this US place was supposed to be about freedom”: Young Latinas engage in mathematics and social change to save their school. Rethinking Schools, 24(2), 36–39.

    Google Scholar 

  • Vedantam, S. (2011, March). Psych-out sexism: The innocent, unconscious bias that discourages girls from math and science. Slate. Retrieved from http://www.slate.com/articles/health_and_science/the_hidden_brain/2011/03/psychout_sexism.single.html.

  • Walkerdine, V. (1990). Difference, cognition, and mathematics education. For the Learning of Mathematics, 10(3), 51–56.

    Google Scholar 

  • Zaslavsky, C. (2001). Developing number sense: What can other cultures tell us? Teaching Children Mathematics, 7(6), 312–319.

    Google Scholar 

  • Zeichner, K. M., & Liston, D. P. (1996). Reflective teaching: An introduction. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Mathew D. Felton-Koestler.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Felton-Koestler, M.D. Mathematics education as sociopolitical: prospective teachers’ views of the What, Who, and How. J Math Teacher Educ 20, 49–74 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10857-015-9315-x

Download citation

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10857-015-9315-x

Keywords

  • Mathematics teacher education
  • Social justice
  • Equity
  • Diversity
  • Teacher beliefs