Pedagogies of practice and opportunities to learn about classroom mathematics discussions
In this paper, we argue that to prepare pre-service teachers for doing complex work of teaching like leading classroom mathematics discussions requires an implementation of different pedagogies of teacher education in deliberate ways. In supporting our argument, we use two frameworks: one curricular and one pedagogical. The curricular framework is based on the work of Hammerness et al. (Preparing teachers for a changing world. What teachers should learn and be able to do. San Francisco, Jossey-Bass Educational Series, pp 358–388, 2005) outlining four main goals of teacher learning: a vision of practice, knowledge of students and content, dispositions for using this knowledge, and a repertoire of practices and tools. The pedagogical framework is based on the work of Grossman et al. (Teach Teach Theory Pract 15(2):273–289, 2009a; Teach Coll Record 111(9):2055–2100, 2009b) outlining three pedagogies of practice: representations, decompositions, and approximations of practice. We use the curricular framework to examine the opportunities for teacher learning that were afforded by these three different pedagogies of practice in a unit on leading classroom mathematics discussion in a secondary mathematics methods course. We use evidence from our analysis to show how the coordination of those pedagogies of practice is better than any one of them in addressing important goals for teacher learning about classroom discussions.
KeywordsClassroom discussions Instructional practices Reflection Enactment
- Ball, D. L., & Cohen, D. K. (1999). Developing practice, developing practitioners: Toward a practice-based theory of professional education. In G. Sykes & L. Darling-Hammond (Eds.), Teaching as the learning profession: Handbook of policy and practice (pp. 3–32). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
- Boerst, T., Sleep, L., Ball, D. L., & Bass, H. (2011). Preparing teachers to lead mathematics discussions. Teachers College Record, 113(12), 2844–2877.Google Scholar
- Chapin, S., O’Connor, C., & Anderson, N. (2009). Classroom discussions: Using math talk to help students learn, grades K-6 (2nd ed.). Sausalito, CA: Math Solutions Publications.Google Scholar
- Clift, R. T., & Brady, P. (2005). Research on methods courses and field experiences. In M. Cochran-Smith & K. M. Zeichner (Eds.), Studying teacher education: The report of the AERA panel on research and teacher education (pp. 309–424). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
- Common Core State Standards Initiative (CCSSI). (2012). Common core state standards for mathematics. Retrieved from http://www.corestandards.org/assets/CCSSIMath%20Standards.pdf.
- Darling-Hammond, L., & Bransford, J. (2005). Preparing teachers for a changing world: What teachers should learn and be able to do. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Educational Series.Google Scholar
- Grossman, P., Compton, C., Igra, D., Ronfeldt, M., Shahan, E., & Williamson, P. (2009a). Teaching practice: A cross-professional perspective. Teachers College Record, 111(9), 2055–2100.Google Scholar
- Hammerness, K., Darling-Hammond, L., Bransford, J., Berliner, D., Cochran-Smith, M., McDonald, M., & Zeichner, K. (2005). How teachers learn and develop. In L. Darling-Hammond, & J. Bransford (Eds.), Preparing teachers for a changing world. What teachers should learn and be able to do (pp. 358–388). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Educational Series.Google Scholar
- Herbst, P. (2011). Promoting and managing students’ discourse. Deep blue at The University of Michigan. http://hdl.handle.net/2027.42/84368.
- Kennedy, M. (1999). The role of pre-service teacher education. In L. Darling-Hammond & G. Sykes (Eds.), Teaching as the learning profession (pp. 54–85). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
- Lampert, M. (2001). Teaching problems and the problems of teaching. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
- Lave, J., & Wenger, E. (1992). Situated learning: Legitimate peripheral participation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Lortie, D. (1975). Schoolteacher: A sociological study. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
- Moss, P. A. (2011). Analyzing the teaching of professional practice. Teachers College Record, 113(12), 2878–2896.Google Scholar
- Sherin, M. G. (2001). Developing a professional vision of classroom events. In T. Wood, B. S. Nelson, & J. Warfield (Eds.), Beyond classical pedagogy: Teaching elementary school mathematics (pp. 75–93). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
- Strauss, A., & Corbin, J. (1990). Basics of qualitative research: Grounded theory procedures and techniques. London: Sage, Newbury Park.Google Scholar
- Van Es, E. A., & Conroy, J. (2009). Using the performance assessment for California teachers to examine pre-service teachers’ conceptions of teaching mathematics for understanding. Issues in Teacher Education, 18(1), 83–100.Google Scholar
- Wertsch, J. (1998). Mind as action. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar