Questioning is considered a powerful tool in mediating students’ knowledge construction and conceptual understanding. In this qualitative study, the mathematics-focused lesson plans of elementary education prospective teachers provided data to determine the ways that the approach of literature integration in mathematics influenced prospective teachers’ planned questions. All prospective teachers were required to incorporate children’s literature within the mathematics lessons they planned and presented during a field-based teaching experience. Analysis revealed variances in the numbers, types, and foci of prospective teachers’ planned questions. These findings allow speculation that the utilization of mathematics literature integration allowed many of the prospective teachers to create reform-oriented, constructivist mathematics-focused questions and experiences for their students.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Adams, T. L. (2003). Reading mathematics: More than words can say. Reading Teacher, 56(8), 786–795.
Amit, M., & Fried, M. N. (2002). Research, reform, and times of change. In L. D. English (Ed.), Handbook of international research in mathematics education (pp. 355–381). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Andre, T. (1979). Does answering higher-level questions while reading facilitate productive learning? Review of Educational Research, 49, 280–318.
Axelrod, A. (1996). Pigs on a blanket. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster Books for Young Readers.
Baird, J. R., & Northfield, J. R. (Eds.). (1992). Learning from the PEEL experience. Melbourne: Monash University Printing.
Battista, M. (1994). Teacher beliefs and the reform movement in mathematics education. Phi Delta Kappan, 75, 462–463.
Bentz, W. P., & Moore, S. D. (2003). Using literature to teach factorials. Mathematics Teaching in the Middle School, 8(9), 461–465.
Bloom, B. S. (1956). Taxonomy of educational objectives: The classification of educational goals. (Handbook I: Cognitive domain). New York, NY: David McKay Company, Inc.
Blosser, P. E. (1973). Handbook of effective questioning techniques. Worthington, OH: Education Associates.
Blosser, P. E. (2000). How to ask the right questions. Arlington, VA: National Science Teachers Association.
Boaler, J. (1998). Open and closed mathematics: Student experiences and understanding. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 29(1), 41–62.
Boaler, J., & Brodie, K. (2004). The importance of depth and breadth in the analyses of teaching: A framework for analyzing teacher questions. Proceedings of the 26th meeting of the North American Chapter of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education. Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Borich, G. (1992). Effective teaching methods (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Merrill.
Brandy, T. (1999). So what? Teaching children what matters in math. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
Bransford, J., Brown, A., & Cocking, R. (Eds.). (2000). How people learn: Brain, mind, experience, and school: Expanded edition. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
Burns, M. (1994). The greedy triangle. New York, NY: Scholastic Press.
Burns, M. (1997). Spaghetti and meatballs for all. New York, NY: Scholastic Press.
Buschman, L. (2001). Using student interviews to guide classroom instruction: An action research project. Teaching Children Mathematics, 8(4), 222–227.
Cambourne, B. (2001). Conditions for literacy learning: Why do some students fail to learn to read? Ockham’s razor and the conditions of learning. The Reading Teacher, 54(8), 784–786.
Cazden, C. B. (1986). Classroom discourse. In M. C. Wittrock (Ed.), Handbook of research on teaching (3rd ed., pp. 432–463). New York, NY: Macmillan.
Cazden, C. B. (2001). Classroom discourse: The language of teaching and learning (2nd ed.). Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
Cerdan, R., Vidal-Abarca, E., Martinez, T., Gilabert, R., & Gil, L. (2009). Impact of question–answering tasks on search processes and reading comprehension. Learning and Instruction, 19, 13–27.
Cleary, B. P. (2008). On the scale—A weighty tale. Minneapolis, MN: Millbrook Press.
Clement, R. (1991). Counting on Frank. Milwaukee WI: Gareth Stevens.
Crespo, S. (2003). Learning to pose mathematical problems: Exploring changes in preservice teachers’ practices. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 52, 243–270.
Doyle, W. (1985). Classroom organization and management. In M. C. Wittrock (Ed.), Handbook of research on teaching (3rd ed., pp. 392–431). New York, NY: Macmillan.
Draper, R. J. (2002). School mathematics reform, constructivism, and literacy: A case for literacy instruction in the reform-oriented math classroom. Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy, 45(6), 520–529.
Ducolon, C. K. (2000). Quality literature as a springboard to problem solving. Teaching Children Mathematics, 6(7), 442–446. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/i40051648.
Elia, I., van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, M., & Georgiou, A. (2010). The role of pictures in picture books on children’s cognitive engagement with mathematics. European Early Childhood Education Research Journal, 18(3), 125–147.
Franke, M. L., Webb, N. M., Chan, A. G., Ing, M., Freund, D., & Battey, D. (2009). Teacher questioning to elicit students’ mathematical thinking in elementary school classrooms. Journal of Teacher Education, 60(4), 380–392.
Freeman, E. B., & Person, D. G. (1998). Connecting informational children’s books with content area learning. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
Gall, M. (1984). Synthesis of research on teachers’ questioning. Educational Leadership, 42, 40–47.
Gall, M., Dunning, B., & Weathersby, R. (1971). Minicourse nine: Higher cognitive questioning, teachers handbook. Beverly Hills, CA: Macmillan Educational Services.
Gallagher, J. J. (1965). Productive thinking of gifted children. U. S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Office of Education, Cooperative Research Project, No 965. Urbana, UL: University of Illinois.
Graesser, A. C., & Person, M. K. (1994). Question asking during tutoring. American Educational Research Journal, 31, 104–137.
Grossier, P. (1964). How to use the fine art of questions. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Hamilton, R. J. (1985). A framework for the evaluation of the effectiveness of adjunct questions and objectives. Review of Educational Research, 55, 47–85.
Hannel, I. (2009). Insufficient questioning. Phi Delta Kappan, 91(3), 65–69.
Haury, D. L. (2001). Literature-based mathematics in elementary school. Retrieved May 15, 2006 from Ohio State University, Eric Digest Web site: http://www.ericse.org.
Henning, J. E., & Lockhart, A. (2003). Acquiring the art of classroom discourse: A comparison of teacher and prospective teacher talk in a fifth grade classroom. Research for Educational Reform, 8(3), 46–57.
Herber, H. L. (1978). Teaching reading in the content areas. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Hiebert, J. (2003). What research says about the NCTM standards. In J. Kilpatrick, W. G. Martin, & D. Schifter (Eds.), A research companion to principles and standards for school mathematics (pp. 1–23). Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics Inc.
Hiebert, J., Gallimore, R., Garnier, H., Givving, K. B., Hollingsworth, H., Jacobs, J., et al. (2003). Teaching mathematics in seven countries: Results from the TIMSS 1999 video study. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics.
Hiebert, J., & Wearne, D. (1993). Instructional tasks, classroom discourse, and students’ learning in second-grade arithmetic. American Educational Research Journal, 30, 393–425.
Hutchins, P. (1986). The doorbell rang. New York, NY: Greenwillow Books.
Kawanaka, T., Stigler, J., & Hiebert, J. (1999). Studying mathematics classrooms in Germany, Japan, and the United States: Lessons from TIMSS videotape study. In G. Kaiser, E. Luna, & I. Huntley (Eds.), International comparisons in mathematics education (pp. 86–203). Philadelphia, PA: Falmer Press.
Kazemi, E., & Stipek, D. (2001). Promoting conceptual thinking in four upper-elementary mathematics classrooms. Elementary School Journal, 102, 59–80.
Keat, J. B., & Wilburne, J. M. (2009). The impact of storybooks on kindergarten children’s mathematical achievement and approaches to learning. US-China Education Review, 6(7), 61–67.
Klinzing, H. G., Klinzing-Eurich, G., & Tisher, R. P. (1985). Higher cognitive behaviors in classroom discourse: Congruencies between teachers’ questions and pupils’ responses. The Australian Journal of Education, 29(1), 63–75.
Lemke, J. L. (1990). Talking science: Language, learning and values. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
Lincoln, Y. S., & Guba, E. G. (1985). Naturalistic inquiry. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Lorber, M. (1996). Objectives, methods, and evaluation for secondary teaching (4th ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
Manouchehri, A., & Lapp, D. A. (2003). Unveiling student understanding: The role of questioning in instruction. Mathematics Teacher, 96(8), 562–566.
Martino, A. M., & Maher, C. A. (1999). Teacher questioning to promote justification and generalization in mathematics: What research practice has taught us. Journal of Mathematics Behavior, 18, 53–78.
Mehan, H. (1985). The structure of classroom discourse. In T. A. Van Dijk (Ed.), Handbook of discourse analysis (Vol. 3, pp. 119–131). London: Academic Press.
Mewborn, D. S., & Huberty, P. D. (1999). Questioning your way to the standards. Teaching Children Mathematics, 6(4), 226–227.
Moyer, P. S. (2000). Communicating mathematically: Children’s literature as a natural connection. The Reading Teacher, 54(3), 246–256.
Moyer, P. S., & Milewicz, E. (2002). Learning to question: Categories of questioning used by preservice teachers during diagnostic mathematics interviews. Journal of Mathematics Teacher Education, 5, 293–315.
Murphy, S. J. (1997). Divide and ride. New York, NY: Harper Collins.
Murphy, S. J. (1998a). Lemonade for sale. New York, NY: Harper Collins.
Murphy, S. J. (1998b). The penny pot. New York, NY: Harper Collins.
Murphy, S. J. (1999). Learning math through stories. School Library Journal, 45(3), 122–124.
Murphy, S. J. (2003). Coyotes all around. New York, NY: Harper Collins.
Napell, S. M. (2001). Using questions to enhance classroom learning. Education, 99(2), 188–197.
National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. (2000). Principles and standards for school mathematics. Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.
National Mathematics Advisory Panel. (2008). Foundations for success. Jessup, MD: United States Department of Education.
National Research Council. (2001). The state of school mathematics in the United States, Chapter 2. In J. Kilpatrick, J. Swafford & B. Findell (Eds.), Adding it up: Helping children learn mathematics (pp. 31–70). Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
Newschwander, C. (1997). Sir Cumference and the first round table: A math adventure. Watertown, MA: Charlesbridge.
Nicol, C. (1999). Learning to teach mathematics: Questioning, listening and responding. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 37, 45–66.
Nilssen, V., Gudmundsdottir, S., & Wangsmo-Cappelen, V. (1995). Unexpected answers: Case study of a student teacher derailing in a math lesson. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, San Francisco, CA.
Ong, E. G., Lim, C. S., & Ghazali, M. (2010). Examining the changes in novice and experienced mathematics teachers’ questioning techniques through the lesson study process. Journal of Science and Mathematics Education in Southeast Asia, 33(1), 86–109.
Parker, M., & Hurry, J. (2007). Teachers’ use of questioning and modeling comprehension skills in primary classrooms. Educational Review, 59(3), 299–314.
Patton, M. (2002). Qualitative research and evaluation methods (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Perry, M., VanderStoep, S. W., & Yu, S. L. (1993). Asking questions in first-grade mathematics classes: Potential influences on mathematical thought. Journal of Educational Psychology, 85(1), 31–40.
Pinczes, E. (1993). One hundred hungry ants. New York, NY: Houghton Mifflin Company.
Ralph, E. G. (1999a). Developing novice teachers’ oral-questioning skills. McGill Journal of Education, 34(1), 29–47.
Ralph, E. G. (1999b). Oral-questioning skills of novice teachers: Any questions? Journal of Instructional Psychology, 26(4), 286–296.
Sanders, N. M. (1966). Questions: What kinds?. New York, NY: Harper and Row.
Smith, R. (1969). Questions for teachers: Creative reading. The Reading Teacher, 22(5), 430–434.
Smith, M. S. (2000). Balancing old and new: An experienced middle school teacher’s learning in the context of mathematics instructional reform. Elementary School Journal, 100(4), 351–375.
Smith, P. S., Banilower, E., McMahon, K., & Weiss, I. (2002). The national survey of science and mathematics education: Trends from 1977 to 2000. Chapel Hill, NC: Horizon Research, Inc. Retrieved from http://2000survey.horizon-research.com/reports/trends/trends_report.pdf.
Smith, E. L., Blakeslee, T. D., & Anderson, C. W. (1993). Teaching strategies associated with conceptual change learning in science. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 10, 111–126.
Stein, M. K., Remillard, J., & Smith, M. S. (2007). How curriculum influences student learning. In F. J. Lester Jr (Ed.), Second handbook of research on mathematics teaching and learning (pp. 319–369). Charlotte, NC: Information Age.
Stigler, J. W., & Hiebert, J. (1999). The teaching gap: Best ideas from the world’s teachers for improving education in the classroom. New York, NY: The Free Press.
Teitel, L. (2003). The professional development schools handbook: Starting, sustaining, and assessing partnerships that improve student learning. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press Inc.
Van de Walle, J. A., Karp, K., & Bay-Williams, J. M. (2010). Elementary and middle school mathematics. Teaching developmentally (7th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson Education Inc.
van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, M., van den Boogaard, S., & Doig, B. (2008). Picture books as an impetus for kindergarteners’ mathematical thinking. Mathematical Thinking and Learning, 10, 341–373.
Van Garderen, D. (2004). Reciprocal teaching as a comprehension strategy for understanding mathematical word problems. Reading & Writing Quarterly, 20, 225–229. doi:10.1080/10573560490272702.
Vogler, K. E. (2005). Improve your verbal questioning. The Clearing House, 79(2), 98–103.
Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Walsh, J. A., & Sattes, B. D. (2011). Thinking through quality questioning: Deepening student engagement. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Wasserman, S. (1991). The art of the question. Childhood Education, 67(4), 257–259.
Watson, K., & Young, B. (2003). Discourse for learning in the classroom. In S. Murphy & C. Dudley-Marling (Eds.), Literacy through language arts: Teaching and learning in context (pp. 39–49). Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English.
Webb, N. M., Nemer, K. M., & Ing, M. (2006). Small-group reflections: Parallels between teacher discourse and student behavior in peer-directed groups. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 15, 63–119.
Welchman-Tischler, R. (1992). How to use children’s literature to teach mathematics. Reston, VA: The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics Inc.
White, D. Y. (2000). Reaching all students mathematically through questioning. In M. Strutchens, M. L. Johnson, & W. F. Tate (Eds.), Changing the faces of mathematics: Perspectives on African Americans (pp. 21–32). Reston, VA: NCTM.
White, D. Y. (2003). Promoting productive mathematical classroom discourse with diverse students. The Journal of Mathematical Behavior, 22(1), 37–53.
Whitin, D. (1992). Explore mathematics through children’s literature. School Library Journal, 38(8), 24–28.
Whitin, D. J., & Whitin, P. E. (2004). New visions for linking literature and mathematics. Urbana, IL: The National Council of Teachers of English.
Wilen, W. W. (2001). Exploring myths about teacher questioning in the social studies classroom. The Social Studies, 92(1), 26–32.
Wood, T. (2002). What does it mean to teach differently? In B. Barton, K. Irwin, M. Pfannuch & M. Thomas (Eds.), Mathematics education in the South Pacific: Proceedings of the twenty-fifth annual conference of the Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia (Vol. 1, pp. 61–67). Auckland, New Zealand: MERGA.
Yopp, R. H., & Yopp, H. K. (2001). Literature-based reading activities (3rd ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
Young, E., & Marroquin, C. (2006). Posing problems from children’s literature. Teaching Children Mathematics, 12(7), 362–366.
Zambo, R. (2005). The power of two: Linking mathematics and literature. Mathematics Teaching in the Middle School, 10(8), 394–399.
About this article
Cite this article
Purdum-Cassidy, B., Nesmith, S., Meyer, R.D. et al. What are they asking? An analysis of the questions planned by prospective teachers when integrating literature in mathematics. J Math Teacher Educ 18, 79–99 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10857-014-9274-7
- Teacher education
- Mathematics instruction
- Field-based experience