Skip to main content

Fabrication of porous NiTi biomedical alloy by SHS method


Having similar properties with natural bone, has made porous NiTi shape memory alloy (SMA) a promising material for biomedical applications. In this study porous NiTi SMA has synthesized with 30 and 40 vol.% green porosity by self propagating high temperature synthesis (SHS) from elemental Ni and Ti powders. After synthesizing, the average porosity of specimens reached to 36.8 and 49.8% for green compacts with 30 and 40 vol.% of green porosity, respectively. Combustion products were characterized by XRD, SEM, EDS and electrochemical polarization test. Although desired B2 (NiTi) phase was the dominant phase, other phases like Ti2Ni, Ni3Ti and Ni4Ti3 are found. Electrochemical polarization analysis in simulated body fluids (SBF) shows that, synthesized porous NiTi has better corrosion resistance than solid one and hydroxy apatite coating on porous NiTi worsen electrochemical corrosion resistance which is because of bioactive behavior of hydroxy apatite.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8


  1. 1.

    Tosun G, Ozler L, Kaya M, Orhan N. A study on microstructure and porosity of NiTi alloy implants produced by SHS. J Alloy Compd. 2009;487:605–11.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Li BY, Rong LJ, Li YY, Gjunter VE. Synthesis of porous Ni–Ti shape-memory alloys by self-propagating high-temperature synthesis: reaction mechanism and anisotropy in pore structure. Acta Mater 2000;48:3895–904.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Tosun G, Orhan N, Özler L. Investigation of combustion channel in fabrication of porous NiTi alloy implants by SHS. Mater Lett. 2012;66:138–40.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Shakeri MS, Aghajani H. Modeling of stress relaxation process, case study: shape setting heat treatment of a Ni rich-NiTi alloy. J Alloy Compd. 2013;574:119–23.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Sh. Javaherian H, Aghajani P. Mehdizadeh, Cu–TiO2 composite as fabricated by SHS method. Int J Self-Propagating High-Temp Synth. 2014;23:47–54.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Yeh CL, Sung WY. Synthesis of NiTi intermetallics by self-propagating combustion. J Alloy Compd. 2004;376:79–88.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Kaya M, Orhan N, Tosun G. The effect of the combustion channels on the compressive strength of porous NiTi shape memory alloy fabricated by SHS as implant material. Curr Opin Solid State Mater Sci. 2010;14:21–5.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Bansiddhi A, Sargeant TD, Stupp SI, Dunand DC. Porous NiTi for bone implants: a review. Acta Biomater. 2008;4:773–82.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Tay BY, Goh CW, Gu YW, Lim CS, Yong MS, Ho MK, Myint MH. Porous NiTi fabricated by self-propagating high-temperature synthesis of elemental powders. J Mater Process Technol. 2008;202:359–64.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Bertheville B. Porous single-phase NiTi processed under Ca reducing vapor for use as a bone graft substitute. Biomaterials. 2006;27:1246–50.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Kaya M, Orhan N, Kurt B, Khan TI. The effect of solution treatment under loading on the microstructure and phase transformation behavior of porous NiTi shape memory alloy fabricated by SHS. J Alloy Compd. 2009;475:378–82.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    lin CC, Jonathan C, Paul C. Effects of heat treatment on characteristics of porous Ni-rich NiTi SMA prepared by SHS technique. Trans Nonferrous Met Soc China. 2006;16:49–53.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Jiang HC, Rong LJ. Ways to lower transformation temperatures of porous NiTi shape memory alloy fabricated by self-propagating high-temperature synthesis. Mater Sci Eng A. 2006;438–440:883–6.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Chu CL, Chung CY, Lin PH. DSC study of the effect of aging temperature on the reverse martensitic transformation in porous Ni-rich NiTi shape memory alloy fabricated by combustion synthesis. Mater Lett. 2005;59:404–7.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Chung CY, Chu CL, Wang SD. Porous TiNi shape memory alloy with high strength fabricated by self-propagating high-temperature synthesis. Mater Lett. 2004;58:1683–6.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Biswas A. Porous NiTi by thermal explosion mode of SHS: processing, mechanism and generation of single phase microstructure. Acta Mater. 2005;53:1415–25.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Jiang HC, Rong LJ. Effect of hydroxyapatite coating on nickel release of the porous NiTi shape memory alloy fabricated by SHS method. Surf Coat Technol. 2006;201:1017–21.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Xua JL, Bao LZ, Liu AH, Jin XF, Luo JM, Zhong ZC, Zheng YF. Effect of pore sizes on the microstructure and properties of the biomedical porous NiTi alloys prepared by microwave sintering. J Alloy Compd. 2015;645:137–42.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Park J, Lakes RS. Biomaterials: an introduction. 3rd ed. New York, NY: Springer; 2007. p. 152–4.

    Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Jarcho M. Calcium phosphate ceramics as hard tissue prosthetics. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1981;157:259–78.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Kunze J, Muller L, Macak JM, Greil P, Schmuki P, Muller FA. Time-dependent growth of biomimetic apatite on anodic TiO2 nanotubes. Electrochimica Acta. 2008;53:6995–7003.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to H. Aghajani.

Additional information

Publisher’s note: Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Saadati, A., Aghajani, H. Fabrication of porous NiTi biomedical alloy by SHS method. J Mater Sci: Mater Med 30, 92 (2019).

Download citation