Osteogenic potential of sol–gel bioactive glasses containing manganese
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Bioactive glasses (BGs) are widely used for bone regeneration, and allow the incorporation of different ions with therapeutic properties into the glass network. Amongst the different ions with therapeutic benefits, manganese (Mn) has been shown to influence bone metabolism and activate human osteoblasts integrins, improving cell adhesion, proliferation and spreading. Mn has also been incorporated into bioceramics as a therapeutic ion for improved osteogenesis. Here, up to 4.4 mol% MnO was substituted for CaO in the 58S composition (60 mol% SiO2, 36 mol% CaO, 4 mol% P2O5) and its effects on the glass properties and capability to influence the osteogenic differentiation were evaluated. Mn-containing BGs with amorphous structure, high specific surface area and nanoporosity were obtained. The presence of Mn2+ species was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Mn-containing BGs presented no cytotoxic effect on human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and enabled sustained ion release in culture medium. hMSCs osteogenic differentiation stimulation and influence on the mineralisation process was also confirmed through the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and expression of osteogenic differentiation markers, such as collagen type I, osteopontin and osteocalcin, which presented higher expression in the presence of Mn-containing samples compared to control. Results show that the release of manganese ions from bioactive glass provoked human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) differentiation down a bone pathway, whereas hMSCs exposed to the Mn-free glass did not differentiate. Mn incorporation offers great promise for obtaining glasses with superior properties for bone tissue regeneration.
The authors acknowledge financial support from CNPq, CAPES and FAPEMIG/Brazil and to the Advanced Photoelectron Spectroscopy Laboratory (APSL—Department of Materials—Imperial College London) for XPS analysis.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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