Long-term, subcutaneously implanted continuous glucose biosensors have the potential to improve diabetes management and reduce associated complications. However, the innate foreign body reaction (FBR) both alters the local glucose concentrations in the surrounding tissues and compromises glucose diffusion to the biosensor due to the recruitment of high-metabolizing inflammatory cells and the formation of a dense, collagenous fibrous capsule. Minimizing the FBR has mainly focused on “passively antifouling” materials that reduce initial cellular attachment, including poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). Instead, the membrane reported herein utilizes an “actively antifouling” or “self-cleaning” mechanism to inhibit cellular attachment through continuous, cyclic deswelling/reswelling in response to normal temperature fluctuations of the subcutaneous tissue. This thermoresponsive double network (DN) membrane is based on N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm) and 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid (AMPS) (75:25 and 100:0 NIPAAm:AMPS in the 1st and 2nd networks, respectively; “DN-25%”). The extent of the FBR reaction of a subcutaneously implanted DN-25% cylindrical membrane was evaluated in rodents in parallel with a PEG-diacrylate (PEG-DA) hydrogel as an established benchmark biocompatible control. Notably, the DN-25% implants were more than 25× stronger and tougher than the PEG-DA implants while maintaining a modulus near that of subcutaneous tissue. From examining the FBR at 7, 30 and 90 days after implantation, the thermoresponsive DN-25% implants demonstrated a rapid healing response and a minimal fibrous capsule (~20–25 µm), similar to the PEG-DA implants. Thus, the dynamic self-cleaning mechanism of the DN-25% membranes represents a new approach to limit the FBR while achieving the durability necessary for long-term implantable glucose biosensors.
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Funding from the NIH/NIDDK (1R01DK095101-01A1) is gratefully acknowledged. This work was supported, in part, by funding from the National Science Foundation Engineering Research Center for Precise Advanced Technologies and Health Systems for Underserved Populations (PATHS-UP) (Award No. 1648451) and funding from the Robert J. Kleberg, Jr. and Helen C. Kleberg Foundation. A.K.M. thanks the NSF Graduate Research Fellowship Program (NSF GRFP M1703014).
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Means, A.K., Dong, P., Clubb, F.J. et al. A self-cleaning, mechanically robust membrane for minimizing the foreign body reaction: towards extending the lifetime of sub-Q glucose biosensors. J Mater Sci: Mater Med 30, 79 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10856-019-6282-2
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