This study aimed to explore a potential use of fish scale-derived gelatin nanofibrous scaffolds (GNS) in tissue engineering due to their biological and economical merits. Extraction of gelatin was achieved via decalcification, sonication and lyophilization of mixed fish scales. To fabricate nano-scale architecture of scaffolds analogous to natural extracellular matrix, gelatin was rendered into nanofibrous matrices through 6-h electrospinning, resulting in the average diameter of 48 ± 12 nm. In order to improve the water-resistant ability while retaining their biocompatibility, GNS were physically crosslinked with ultraviolet (UV) irradiation for 5 min (UGN5), 10 min (UGN10) and 20 min (UGN20). On average, the diameter of nanofibers increased by 3 folds after crosslinking, however, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis confirmed that no major alterations occurred in the functional groups of gelatin. A degradation assay showed that UGN5 and UGN10 scaffolds remained in minimum essential medium for 14 days, while UGN20 scaffolds degraded completely after 10 days. All UGN scaffolds promoted adhesion and proliferation of human keratinocytes, HaCaT, without causing an apparent cytotoxicity. UGN5 scaffolds were shown to stimulate a better growth of HaCaT cells compared to other scaffolds upon 1 day of incubation, whereas UGN20 had a long-term effect on cells exhibiting 25% higher cell proliferation than positive control after 7 days. In the wound scratch assay, UGN5 scaffolds induced a rapid cell migration closing up to 79% of an artificial wound within 24 h. The current findings provide a new insight of UGN scaffolds to serve as wound dressings in the future.
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This study was conducted under the collaboration of Faculty of Science and Faculty of Engineering and funded by The University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus.
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Beishenaliev, A., Lim, S.S., Tshai, K.Y. et al. Fabrication and preliminary in vitro evaluation of ultraviolet-crosslinked electrospun fish scale gelatin nanofibrous scaffolds. J Mater Sci: Mater Med 30, 62 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10856-019-6264-4