Electrospun membranes have the potential to act as an effective barrier for wounds from the external environment to prevent pathogens. In addition, materials with good antibacterial properties can effectively fight off the invading pathogens. In this paper, we report the development of a novel electrospun polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) membrane containing biosynthesized silver nanoparticle (bAg) for wound dressing applications. Plant extract from a medicinal plant Mimosa pudica was utilized for the synthesis of bAg. Synthesized bAg were characterized by Ultraviolet-Visible (UV) Spectroscopy and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The morphology of bAg was obtained from Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and found that they were spherical in morphology with average particle size 7.63 ± 1.2 nm. bAg nanoparticles incorporated PVA membranes were characterized using several physicochemical techniques such as Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis. Experimental results confirmed the successful incorporation of bAg in PVA fibers. PVA nanofiber membranes incorporated with bAg showed good mechanical strength, excellent exudate uptake capacity, antibacterial activity, blood compatibility and cytocompatibility.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Augustine R, Augustine A, Kalarikkal N, Thomas S. Fabrication and characterization of biosilver nanoparticles loaded calcium pectinate nano-micro dual-porous antibacterial wound dressings. Prog Biomater. 2016;5:223–35.
Recek N, Resnik M, Motaln H, Lah-Turnšek T, Augustine R, Kalarikkal N, et al. Cell Adhesion on Polycaprolactone Modified by Plasma Treatment. Int J Polym Sci. 2016;7354396, https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/7354396.
Augustine R, Kalarikkal N, Thomas S. Clogging-Free Electrospinning of Polycaprolactone Using Acetic Acid/Acetone Mixture. Polym Plast Technol Eng. 2016;55:518–29.
Augustine R, Dan P, Sosnik A, Kalarikkal N, Tran N, Vincent B, et al. Electrospun poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene)/zinc oxide nanocomposite tissue engineering scaffolds with enhanced cell adhesion and blood vessel formation. Nano Res. 2017;10:1–19.
Augustine R, Sarry F, Kalarikkal N, Thomas S, Badie L, Rouxel D. Surface Acoustic Wave Device with Reduced Insertion Loss by Electrospinning P(VDF-TrFE)/ZnO Nanocomposites. Nano-Micro Lett. 2016;8:282–90.
Alavarse AC, de Oliveira Silva FW, Colque JT, da Silva VM, Prieto T, Venancio EC, et al. Tetracycline hydrochloride-loaded electrospun nanofibers mats based on PVA and chitosan for wound dressing. Mater Sci Eng C. 2017;77:271–81.
Duque Sánchez L, Brack N, Postma A, Pigram PJ, Meagher L. Surface modification of electrospun fibres for biomedical applications: A focus on radical polymerization methods. Biomaterials. 2016;106:24–45.
Kamoun EA, Kenawy ERS, Chen X. A review on polymeric hydrogel membranes for wound dressing applications: PVA-based hydrogel dressings. J. Adv. Res. 2017;217–33.
He D, Hu B, Yao Q, Wang K, Yu S. Large-Scale Synthesis of Flexible Free- Sensitivity: Electrospun PVA Nanofibers of Silver Nanoparticles. ACS Nano. 2009;3:3993–4002.
Rudra R, Kumar V, Kundu PP. Acid catalysed cross-linking of poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) by glutaraldehyde: effect of crosslink density on the characteristics of PVA membranes used in single chambered microbial fuel cells. RSC Adv. 2015;5:83436–47.
Banerjee P, Satapathy M, Mukhopahayay A, Das P. Leaf extract mediated green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from widely available Indian plants: synthesis, characterization, antimicrobial property and toxicity analysis. Bioresour Bioprocess. 2014;1:3.
Singh D, Rawat D. Isha. Microwave-assisted synthesis of silver nanoparticles from Origanum majorana and Citrus sinensis leaf and their antibacterial activity: a green chemistry approach. Bioresour Bioprocess. 2016;3:14.
Keat CL, Aziz A, Eid AM, Elmarzugi NA. Biosynthesis of nanoparticles and silver nanoparticles. Bioresour Bioprocess. 2015;2:47.
Hebbalalu D, Lalley J, Nadagouda MN, Varma RS. Greener techniques for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using plant extracts, enzymes, bacteria, biodegradable polymers, and microwaves. ACS Sustain Chem Eng. 2013;703–12.
Arokiyaraj S, Sripriya N, Bhagya R, Radhika B, Prameela L, Udayaprakash NK. Phytochemical screening, antibacterial and free radical scavenging effects of Artemisia nilagirica, Mimosa pudica and Clerodendrum siphonanthus-An in-vitro study. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 2012;2.
Neela F, Khan MSI, Islam M, Alam M, Akter A. Screening of ethanol, petroleum ether and chloroform extracts of medicinal plants, Lawsonia inermis L. and Mimosa pudica L. for antibacterial activity. Indian J Pharm Sci. 2010;72:388.
Kokane DD, More RY, Kale MB, Nehete MN, Mehendale PC, Gadgoli CH. Evaluation of wound healing activity of root of Mimosa pudica. J Ethnopharmacol. 2009;124:311–5.
Ahmad H, Sehgal S, Mishra A, Gupta R. Mimosa pudica L. (Laajvanti): An overview. Pharmacogn Rev. 2012;6:115–24.
Marega C, Maculan J, Andrea Rizzi G, Saini R, Cavaliere E, Gavioli L. Polyvinyl alcohol electrospun nanofibers containing Ag nanoparticles used as sensors for the detection of biogenic amines. Nanotechnology. 2015;26:075501.
Chou HL, Wu CM, Lin FD, Rick J. Interactions between silver nanoparticles and polyvinyl alcohol nanofibers. AIP Adv. 2014;4:087111.
Zhang Z, Wu Y, Wang Z, Zou X, Zhao Y, Sun L. Fabrication of silver nanoparticles embedded into polyvinyl alcohol (Ag/PVA) composite nanofibrous films through electrospinning for antibacterial and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activities. Mater Sci Eng C. 2016;69:462–9.
Destaye AG, Lin CK, Lee CK. Glutaraldehyde vapor cross-linked nanofibrous PVA mat with in situ formed silver nanoparticles. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2013;5:4745–52.
Augustine R, Kalarikkal N, Thomas S. Advancement of wound care from grafts to bioengineered smart skin substitutes. Prog. biomater. 2014;3:103–13.
Augustine R, Nethi SK, Kalarikkal N, Thomas S, Patra CR. Electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds embedded with europium hydroxide nanorods (EHNs) with enhanced vascularization and cell proliferation for tissue engineering applications. J. Mater. Chem. B. 2017;5:4660–72.
Augustine R, Kalarikkal N, Thomas S, Nethi SK, Patra CR. Electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds embedded with europium hydroxide nanorods (EHNs) with enhanced vascularization and cell proliferation for tissue engineering applications. J. Mater. Chem. B. 2017;5:4660–72.
Al Moustafa AE, Foulkes WD, Benlimame N, Wong A, Yen L, Bergeron J, et al. E6/E7 proteins of HPV type 16 and ErbB-2 cooperate to induce neoplastic transformation of primary normal oral epithelial cells. Oncogene. 2004;23:350–8.
Pillai ZS, Kamat PV. What Factors Control the Size and Shape of Silver Nanoparticles in the Citrate Ion Reduction Method? J Phys Chem B [Internet]. 2004;108:945–51.
Sun Y, Yin Y, Mayers BT, Herricks T, Xia Y. Uniform silver nanowires synthesis by reducing AgNO3 with ethylene glycol in the presence of seeds and poly(vinyl pyrrolidone). Chem Mater. 2002;14:4736–45.
Middleton E, Kandaswami C, Theoharides TC. The effects of plant flavonoids on mammalian cells: implications for inflammation, heart disease, and cancer. Pharmacol Rev. 2000;52:673–751.
Lamastra FR, Bianco A, Meriggi A, Montesperelli G, Nanni F, Gusmano G. Nanohybrid PVA/ZrO2 and PVA/Al2O3 electrospun mats. Chem Eng J. 2008;145:169–75.
Krishnaraj C, Jagan EG, Rajasekar S, Selvakumar P, Kalaichelvan PT, Mohan N. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Acalypha indica leaf extracts and its antibacterial activity against water borne pathogens. Colloids Surf. B. 2010;76:50–6.
Augustine R, Kalarikkal N, Thomas S., Electrospun PCL. membranes incorporated with biosynthesized silver nanoparticles as antibacterial wound dressings. Appl Nanosci. 2015;337–44.
Huang S, Wang J, Zhang Y, Yu Z, Qi C. Quaternized Carboxymethyl Chitosan-Based Silver Nanoparticles Hybrid: Microwave-Assisted Synthesis, Characterization and Antibacterial Activity. Nanomater [Internet]. 2016;6:118.
Sapalidis AA, Katsaros FK, Steriotis TA, Kanellopoulos NK. Properties of poly(vinyl alcohol)-Bentonite clay nanocomposite films in relation to polymer-clay interactions. J Appl Polym Sci. 2012;123:1812–21.
Liang C-C, Park AY, Guan J-L. In vitro scratch assay: A convenient and inexpensive method for analysis of cell migration in vitro. Nat Protoc [Internet]. 2007;2:329–33.
Golafshan N, Rezahasani R, Tarkesh Esfahani M, Kharaziha M, Khorasani SN. Nanohybrid hydrogels of laponite: PVA-Alginate as a potential wound healing material. Carbohydr Polym. 2017;176:392–401.
Liu Y, Vrana NE, Cahill PA, McGuinness GB. Physically crosslinked composite hydrogels of PVA with natural macromolecules: Structure, mechanical properties, and endothelial cell compatibility. J Biomed Mater Res-Part B Appl Biomater. 2009;90 B:492–502.
Raja BS. 16 Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles and its antibacterial activity using seaweed Urospora sp. African. J Biotechnol. 2012;11:12192–8.
Marimuthu S, Rahuman AA, Rajakumar G, Santhoshkumar T, Kirthi AV, Jayaseelan C, et al. Evaluation of green synthesized silver nanoparticles against parasites. Parasitol Res. 2011;108:1541–9.
Zhao Y, Zhou Y, Wu X, Wang L, Xu L, Wei S. A facile method for electrospinning of Ag nanoparticles/poly (vinyl alcohol)/carboxymethyl-chitosan nanofibers. Appl Surf Sci. 2012;258:8867–73.
Kokabi M, Sirousazar M, Hassan ZM. PVA-clay nanocomposite hydrogels for wound dressing. Eur Polym J. 2007;43:773–81.
Naskar AK, Keum JK, Boeman RG. Polymer matrix nanocomposites for automotive structural components. Nat Nanotechnol [Internet]. 2016;11:1026–30.
Li H, Yang J, Hu X, Liang J, Fan Y, Zhang X. Superabsorbent polysaccharide hydrogels based on pullulan derivate as antibacterial release wound dressing. J Biomed Mater Res-Part A. 2011;98 A:31–9.
Shrivastava S, Bera T, Roy A, Singh G, Ramachandrarao P, Dash D. Characterization of enhanced antibacterial effects of novel silver nanoparticles. Nanotechnology. 2010;18:1–9. https://doi.org/10.1088/0957-4484/18/22/225103.
Lu Z, Rong K, Li J, Yang H, Chen R. Size-dependent antibacterial activities of silver nanoparticles against oral anaerobic pathogenic bacteria. J Mater Sci Mater Med. 2013;24:1465–71.
Augustine R, Kalarikkal N, Thomas S. A facile and rapid method for the black pepper leaf mediated green synthesis of silver nanoparticles and the antimicrobial study. Appl Nanosci. 2014;4:809–18.
Moussaoui F, Alaoui T. Evaluation of antibacterial activity and synergistic effect between antibiotic and the essential oils of some medicinal plants. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 2016.
Ikada Y, Iwata H, Horii F, Matsunaga T, Taniguchi M, Suzuki M, et al. Blood compatibility of hydrophilic polymers. J Biomed Mater Res. 1981;15:697–718.
Huang H, Lai W, Cui M, Liang L, Lin Y, Fang Q, et al. An Evaluation of Blood Compatibility of Silver Nanoparticles. Sci Rep. 2016;6:25518.
Chen LQ, Fang L, Ling J, Ding CZ, Kang B, Huang CZ. Nanotoxicity of silver nanoparticles to red blood cells: Size dependent adsorption, uptake, and hemolytic activity. Chem Res Toxicol. 2015;28:501–9.
Alippilakkotte S, Kumar S, Sreejith L. Fabrication of PLA/Ag nanofibers by green synthesis method using Momordica charantia fruit extract for wound dressing applications. Colloids. Surf A Physicochem Eng Asp. 2017;529:771–82.
Kumar KP, Paul W, Sharma CP. Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles with Zingiber officinale Extract and Study of its Blood Compatibility. Bionanoscience. 2012;2:144–52.
Beer C, Foldbjerg R, Hayashi Y, Sutherland DS, Autrup H. Toxicity of silver nanoparticles-Nanoparticle or silver ion? Toxicol Lett. 2012;208:286–92.
Zhang X-F, Shen W, Gurunathan S. Silver Nanoparticle-Mediated Cellular Responses in Various Cell Lines: An in Vitro Model. Int J Mol Sci. 2016;17:1603.
Barman TK, Kalita P, Pal TK. Comparative evaluation of total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity of methanolic root extract of Clerodendrum infortunatum and methanolic whole plant extract of Biophytum sensitivum. Int J Pharm Sci Rev Res. 2013;22:62–6.
AshaRani PV, Mun GLK, Hande MP, Valiyaveettil S. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of silver nanoparticles in human cells. ACS Nano. 2009;3:279–90.
Rangasamy S, Tak YK, Kim S, Paul A, Song JM. Bifunctional therapeutic high-valence silver-pyridoxine nanoparticles with proliferative and antibacterial wound-healing activities. J Biomed Nanotechnol. 2016;12:182–96.
You C, Li Q, Wang X, Wu P, Ho JK, Jin R, et al. Silver nanoparticle loaded collagen/chitosan scaffolds promote wound healing via regulating fibroblast migration and macrophage activation. Sci Rep. 2017;7:1–11. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-10481-0.
Liu X, Lee PY, Ho CM, Lui VCH, Chen Y, Che CM, et al. Silver nanoparticles mediate differential responses in keratinocytes and fibroblasts during skin wound healing. ChemMedChem. 2010;5:468–75.
Murphy A, Casey A, Byrne G, Chambers G, Howe O. Silver nanoparticles induce pro-inflammatory gene expression and inflammasome activation in human monocytes. J Appl Toxicol. 2016;36:1311–20.
This article was made possible by the NPRP9-144-3-021 grant funded by Qatar national Research Fund (a part of Qatar Foundation). The statements made here are totally responsibility of authors.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
About this article
Cite this article
Augustine, R., Hasan, A., Yadu Nath, V.K. et al. Electrospun polyvinyl alcohol membranes incorporated with green synthesized silver nanoparticles for wound dressing applications. J Mater Sci: Mater Med 29, 163 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10856-018-6169-7