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Molecular mechanisms driving Streptococcus mitis entry into human gingival fibroblasts in presence of chitlac-nAg and saliva

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Abstract

The molecular mechanisms leading to Streptococcus mitis capability of entering oral cells were investigated in a co-culture of S. mitis and Human Gingival Fibroblasts (HGFs) in the presence of saliva. An innovative colloidal solution based on silver nanoparticles (Chitlac-nAg), a promising device for daily oral care, was added to the experimental system in order to study the effects of silver on the bacterial overgrowth and ability to enter non-phagocytic eukaryotic cells. The entry of bacteria into the eukaryotic cells is mediated by a signalling pathway involving FAK, integrin β1, and the two cytoskeleton proteins vinculin and F-actin, and down-regulated by the presence of saliva both at 3 and 48 h of culture, whereas Chitlac-n Ag exposure seems to influence, by incrementing it, the number of bacteria entering the fibroblasts only at 48 h. The formation of fibrillary extrusion from HGFs and the co-localization of bacteria and silver nanoparticles within the fibroblast vacuoles were also recorded. After longer experimental times (72 and 96 h), the number of S. mitis chains inside gingival cells is reduced, mainly in presence of saliva. The results suggest an escape of bacteria from fibroblasts to restore the microbial balance of the oral cavity.

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Acknowledgements

This work was supported by: FIRB project, “Accordi di programma 2010”, Prof. Cataldi (Cod.RBAPI095), on “Processi degenerativi dei tessuti mineralizzati del cavo orale, impieghi di biomateriali e controllo delle interazioni con microrganismi dell’ambiente”; and “FAR” 2015 grant Prof. Luigina Cellini. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

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Di Giulio, M., Di Valerio, V., Bosco, D. et al. Molecular mechanisms driving Streptococcus mitis entry into human gingival fibroblasts in presence of chitlac-nAg and saliva. J Mater Sci: Mater Med 29, 36 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10856-018-6040-x

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10856-018-6040-x

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