Osteoblastic cell response on high-rough titanium coatings by cold spray
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Highly rough and porous commercially pure titanium coatings have been directly produced for first time by the cold spray technology, which is a promising technology in front of the vacuum plasma spray for oxygen sensitive materials. The wettability properties as well as the biocompatibility evaluation have been compared to a simply sand blasted Ti6Al4V alloy substrate. Surface topographies were analysed using confocal microscopy. Next, osteoblast morphology (Phalloidin staining), proliferation (MTS assay), and differentiation (alkaline phosphatase activity) were examined along 1, 7 and 14 days of cell culture on the different surfaces. Finally, mineralization by alizarin red staining was quantified at 28 days of cell culture. The contact angle values showed an increased hydrophilic behaviour on the as-sprayed surface with a good correlation to the biological response. A higher cell viability, proliferation and differentiation were obtained for highly rough commercial pure titanium coatings in comparison with sand blasted substrates. Cell morphology was similar in all coatings tested; at 14 days both samples showed extended filopodia. A higher amount of calcium-rich deposits was detected on highly rough surfaces. In summary, in-vitro results showed an increase of biological properties when surface roughness increases.
The authors want to thank the Spanish MINECO for financial support through project MAT2013-46755-R and the Generalitat de Catalunya for the project 2014 SGR 1558, and University of Barcelona for the award of a scholarship that has helped the development of this research. This work was also supported by the Red Temática de Investigación Cooperativa en Envejecimiento y Fragilidad (RETICEF; RD12/0043/0022), the Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Fragilidad y Envejecimiento Saludable (CIBERFES; CB16/10/00245) and FEDER funds.
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Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict ofinterest.
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