The influence of SrO and CaO in silicate and phosphate bioactive glasses on human gingival fibroblasts

  • J. Massera
  • A. Kokkari
  • T. Närhi
  • L. Hupa
Biocompatibility Studies
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Biocompatibility Studies


In this paper, we investigate the effect of substituting SrO for CaO in silicate and phosphate bioactive glasses on the human gingival fibroblast activity. In both materials the presence of SrO led to the formation of a CaP layer with partial Sr substitution for Ca. The layer at the surface of the silicate glass consisted of HAP whereas at the phosphate glasses it was close to the DCPD composition. In silicate glasses, SrO gave a faster initial dissolution and a thinner reaction layer probably allowing for a continuous ion release into the solution. In phosphate glasses, SrO decreased the dissolution process and gave a more strongly bonded reaction layer. Overall, the SrO-containing silicate glass led to a slight enhancement in the activity of the gingival fibroblasts cells when compared to the SrO-free reference glass, S53P4. The cell activity decreased up to 3 days of culturing for all phosphate glasses containing SrO. Whereas culturing together with the SrO-free phosphate glass led to complete cell death at 7 days. The glasses containing SrO showed rapid cell proliferation and growth between 7 and 14 days, reaching similar activity than glass S53P4. The addition of SrO in both silicate and phosphate glasses was assumed beneficial for proliferation and growth of human gingival fibroblasts due to Sr incorporation in the reaction layer at the glass surface and released in the cell culture medium.


Simulated Body Fluid Immersion Time Silicate Glass Bioactive Glass Phosphate Glass 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The Academy of Finland is gratefully acknowledged for the financial support of Jonathan Massera.


  1. 1.
    Lindfors NC, Hyvönen P, Nyyssönen M, Kirjavainen M, Kankare J, Gullichsen E, Salo J. Bioactive glass S53P4 as bone graft substitute in treatment of osteomyelitis. Bone. 2010;47:212–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Lindfors NC, Koski I, Heikkilä JT, Mattila K, Aho AJ. A prospective randomized 14-year follow-up study of bioactive glass and autogenous bone as bone graft substitutes in benign bone tumors. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater. 2010;94:157–64.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hench LL, Day DE, Höland W, Rheinberger VM. Glass and medicine. Int J Appl Glass Sci. 2010;1:104–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hoppe A, Mourino V, Boccaccini AR. Therapeutic inorganic ions in bioactive glasses to enhance bone formation and beyond. Biomater Sci. 2013;1:254–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Clement J, Manero JM, Planell JA, Avila G, Martinez S. Analysis of the structural changes of a phosphate glass during its dissolution in simulated body fluid. J Mater Sci Mater Med. 1999;10:729–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Gapontsev VP, Matittsin SM, Isineev AA, Kravchencko VB. Erbium glass laser and their applications. Opt Laser Technol. 1982;14:189–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ahmed AA, Ali AA, Mahmoud DAR, El-Fiqi AM. Preparation and characterization of antibacterial P2O5–CaO–Na2O–Ag2O glasses. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2011;98A:132–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Reginster JY, Seeman E, DeVernejoul MC, Adami S, Compston J, Phenekos C, Devogelaer JP, Diaz Curiel M, Sawicki A, Goemaere S, Sorenson OH, Felsenberg D, Meunier PJ. Strontium ranelate reduces the risk of non-vertebral fractures in postmenopausal women with osteoporsis: Treatment of peripheral osteoporosis (TROPOS) study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005;90:2816–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Gentleman E, Fredholm YC, Jell G, Loftibakhshaiesh N, O’Donnell MD, Hill RG, Stevens MM. The effects of strontium-substituted bioactive glasses on osteoblasts and osteoclasts in vitro. Biomaterials. 2010;31:3949–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Marie PJ, Ammann P, Boivin G, Rey C. Mechanisms of action and therapeutic potential of strontium in bone. Calcif Tissue Int. 2001;69:121–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Verberckmoes SC, DeBroe ME, D’Haese PC. Dose-dependent effects of strontium on osteoblast function and mineralization. Kidney International. 2003;64:534–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Isaac J, Nohra J, Lao J, Jallot E, Nedelec J-M, Berdal A, Sautier J-M. Effects of strontium-doped bioactive glass on the differentiation of cultured osteogenic cells. Eur Cells Mater. 2011;21:130–43.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Massera J, Hupa L. Influence of SrO substitution for CaO on the properties of bioactive glass S53P4. J Mater Sci Mater Med. 2014;25:657–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Massera J, Petit L, Cardinal T, Videau JJ, Hupa M, Hupa L. Thermal properties and surface reactivity in simulated body fluid of new strontium ion-containing phosphate glasses. J Mater Sci Mater Med. 2013;24:1407–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Abdulmajeed AA, Käpylä J, Massera J, Kokkari AK, Hupa L, Vallittu PK, Närhi TO. In vitro blood and fibroblast responses to BisGMA-TEGDMA/bioactive glass composite implants. J Mater Sci Mater Med. 2014;25:151–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Oksanen J, Hormia P. An organotypic in vitro model that mimics the dentoepithelial junction. J Periodontol. 2002;73:86–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Vitale-Brovarone C, Verne E, Bosetti M, Appendino P, Cannas M. Microstructural and in vitro characterisation of SiO2-Na2O-CaO-MgO glass-ceramic bioactive scaffolds for bone substitutes. J Mater Sci Mater Med. 2005;16:909–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Rohanová D, Boccaccini A, Horkavcová D, Bozděchová P, Bezdičkac P, Častorálovád M. Is non-buffered DMEM solution a suitable medium for in vitro bioactivity tests? J Mater Chem B. 2014;2:5068–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Skelton KL, Glenn JV, Clarke SA, Georgiou G, Valappil SP, Knowles JC, Nazhat SN, Jordan GR. Effect of ternary phosphate-based glass compositions on osteoblast and osteoblast-like proliferation, differentiation and death in vitro. Acta Biomater. 2007;3:563–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Bunker BC, Arnold GW, Wilder JA. Phosphate glass dissolution in aqueous solutions. J Non-Cryst Solids. 1984;64:291–316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Process Chemistry CentreÅbo Akademi UniversityTurkuFinland
  2. 2.Department of Prosthetic DentistryUniversity of TurkuTurkuFinland
  3. 3.Clinic of Oral DiseasesTurku University Central HospitalTurkuFinland
  4. 4.Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering group, Department of Electronics and Communications EngineeringTampere University of TechnologyTampereFinland

Personalised recommendations