Inflammatory cytokine release is affected by surface morphology and chemistry of titanium implants
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To investigate in vitro cellular cytokine expression in relation to commercially pure titanium discs, comparing a native surface to a fluorinated oxide nanotube surface. Control samples pure titanium discs with a homogenous wave of the margins and grooves and an often smeared-out surface structure. Test samples pure titanium discs with a fluorinated titanium oxide chemistry and surface morphology with nanopore/tube geometry characterized by ordered structures of nanotubes with a diameter of ≈120 nm, a spacing of ≈30 nm, and a wall thickness of ≈10 nm. Cross-section view showed vertically aligned nanotubes with similar lengths of ≈700 nm. Peripheral blood mononuclear leucocytes were cultured for 1, 3, and 6 days according to standard procedures. BioPlex Pro™ assays were used for analysis and detection of cytokines. Selected inflammatory cytokines are reported. A pronounced difference in production of the inflammatogenic cytokines was observed. Leucocytes exposed to control coins produced significantly more TNF-α, IL-1ß, and IL-6 than the test nanotube coins. The effect on the TH2 cytokine IL-4 was less pronounced at day 6 compared to days 1 and 3, and slightly higher expressed on the control coins. The morphology and surface chemistry of the titanium surface have a profound impact on basic cytokine production in vitro. Within the limitations of the present study, it seems that the fluorinated oxide nanotube surface results in a lower inflammatory response compared to a rather flat surface that seems to favour inflammation.
KeywordsTitanium Surface TiO2 Nanotubes Titanium Implant Mononuclear Leucocyte Lower Inflammatory Response
We thank Wilhelm & Martina Lundgrens Science Fund and the TUA “Agreement concerning research and education of doctors”, 20140225TUAGBG-365041, Göteborg, Sweden for financial support.
Conflict of interest
No conflict of interests exists.
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