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In vitro evaluation of bioactive strontium-based ceramic with rabbit adipose-derived stem cells for bone tissue regeneration

Abstract

The development of bone replacement materials is an important objective in the field of orthopaedic surgery. Due to the drawbacks of treating bone defects with autografts, synthetic bone graft materials have become optional. So in this work, a bone tissue engineering approach with radiopaque bioactive strontium incorporated calcium phosphate was proposed for the preliminary cytocompatibility studies for bone substitutes. Accumulating evidence indicates that strontium containing biomaterials promote enhanced bone repair and radiopacity for easy imaging. Hence, strontium calcium phosphate (SrCaPO4) and hydroxyapatite scaffolds have been investigated for its ability to support and sustain the growth of rabbit adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (RADMSCs) in vitro. They were characterized via Micro-CT for pore size distribution. Cells used were isolated from New Zealand White rabbit adipose tissue, characterized by FACS and via differentiation into the osteogenic lineage by alkaline phosphatase, Masson’s trichome, Alizarin Red and von Kossa staining on day 28. Material-cell interaction was observed by SEM imaging of cell morphology on contact with material. Live–Dead analysis was done by confocal laser scanning microscopy and cell cluster analysis via μCT. The in vitro biodegradation, elution and nucleation of apatite formation of the material was evaluated using simulated body fluid and phosphate buffered saline in static regime up to 28 days at 37 °C. These results demonstrated that SrCaPO4 is a good candidate for bone tissue engineering applications and with osteogenically-induced RADMSCs, they may serve as potential implants for the repair of critical-sized bone defects.

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Acknowledgments

The authors acknowledge The Director SCTIMST and Head, BMT Wing for the facilities provided; DBT for financial assistance; UGC for the Senior Research Fellowship; Mr. Rana V Raj for isolating adipose tissue; Dr. Anil Kumar TV for confocal analysis, Mr. Nishad KV for technical support, Mr. Renjith P Nair for FACS analysis and Dental products laboratory for Micro-CT facility.

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Correspondence to Annie John.

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Mohan, B.G., Suresh Babu, S., Varma, H.K. et al. In vitro evaluation of bioactive strontium-based ceramic with rabbit adipose-derived stem cells for bone tissue regeneration. J Mater Sci: Mater Med 24, 2831–2844 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10856-013-5018-y

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Keywords

  • Strontium
  • Simulated Body Fluid
  • Cell Cluster
  • Acridine Orange
  • Apatite Formation