We’re sorry, something doesn't seem to be working properly.

Please try refreshing the page. If that doesn't work, please contact support so we can address the problem.

Ag-doped 45S5 Bioglass ® -based bone scaffolds by molten salt ion exchange: processing and characterisation | SpringerLink

Ag-doped 45S5 Bioglass®-based bone scaffolds by molten salt ion exchange: processing and characterisation

We’re sorry, something doesn't seem to be working properly.

Please try refreshing the page. If that doesn't work, please contact support so we can address the problem.


There is increasing interest in developing scaffolds with therapeutic and antibacterial potential for bone tissue engineering. Silver is a proven antibacterial agent which bacteria such as MRSA have little or no defense against. Using an ion exchange method, silver ions have been introduced into 45S5 Bioglass® based scaffolds that were fabricated using the foam replication technique. This technique allows the introduction of Ag+ ions onto the surface of the scaffold without compromising the scaffold bioactivity and other physical properties such as porosity. Controlling the amount of Ag+ ions introduced onto the surface of the scaffold was achieved by tailoring the ion exchange parameters to fabricate samples with repeatable and predictable Ag+ ion release behavior. In vitro studies in simulated body fluid were carried out to ensure that the scaffolds maintained their bioactivity after the introduction of Ag+ ions. It was also shown that the addition of low concentrations (2000:1 w/w) of silver ions supported the attachment and viability of human periodontal ligament stromal cells on the 3D scaffolds. This work has thus confirmed ion exchange as an effective technique to introduce Ag+ ions into 45S5 Bioglass® scaffolds without compromising the basic properties of 45S5 Bioglass® which are required for applications in bone tissue engineering.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12


  1. 1.

    Chen QZ, Thompson ID, Boccaccini AR. 45S5 Bioglass®-derived glass-ceramic scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. Biomaterials. 2006;27:2414–25.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Wu C, Ramaswamy Y, Boughton P, Zreiqat H. Improvement of mechanical and biological properties of porous CaSiO3 scaffolds by poly(d, l-lactic acid) modification. Acta Biomater. 2008;4:343–53.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Fu Q, Rahaman MN, Bal BS, Brown RF, Day DE. Mechanical and in vitro performance of 13–93 bioactive glass scaffolds prepared by a polymer foam replication technique. Acta Biomater. 2008;4:1854–964.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Hutmacher DW, Schantz JT, Lam CXF, Tan KC, Lim TC. State of the art and future directions of scaffold-based bone engineering from a biomaterials perspective. J Tissue Eng Regen Med. 2007;1:245–60.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Bucheler M, Haisch A. Tissue engineering in otorhinolaryngology. DNA Cell Biol. 2003;22:549–64.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Vitale-Brovarone C, Miola M, Balagna C, Verné E. 3D-glass-ceramic scaffolds with antibacterial properties for bone grafting. Chem Eng J. 2008;137:129–36.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Chen W, Liu Y, Courtney HS, Bettenga M, Agrawal CM, Bumgardner JD, Ong JL. In vitro anti-bacterial and biological properties of magnetron co-souttered silver-containing hydroxyapatite coating. Biomaterials. 2006;27:5512–7.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Di Nunzio S, Vitale Brovarone C, Spriano S, Milanese D, Verne E, Bergo V, Maina G, Spinelli P. Silver containing bioactive glasses prepared by molten salt ion exchange. J Eur Ceram Soc. 2004;24:2935–42.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Balagna C, Vitale Brovarone C, Miola M, Verne E, Canuto R A, Saracino S, Muzio G, Fucale G, Maina G. (2010) Biocompatibility and antibacterial effect of silver doped 3d-glass-ceramic scaffolds for bone grafting. J Biomater Appl in press.

  10. 10.

    Mouriño V, Boccaccini AR. Bone tissue engineering therapeutics: controlled drug delivery in three-dimensional scaffolds. J R Soc Interface. 2010;7:209–27.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Mäkinen TJ, Veiranto M, Knuuti J, Jalava J, Törmälä P, Aro HT. Efficacy of bioabsorbable antibiotic containing bone screw in the prevention of biomaterial-related infection due to Staphylococcus aureus. Bone. 2005;36:2.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Schmitz FJ, Jones ME. Antibiotics for treatment of infections cause by MRSA and elimination of MRSA carriage. What are the choices? Int J Antimicrob Agents. 1997;9:1–19.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Joostena U, Joist A, Gosheger G, Liljenqvist U, Brandt B, Von Eiff C. Effectiveness of hydroxyapatite-vancomycin bone cement in the treatment of Staphylococcus aureus induced chronic osteomyelitis. Biomaterials. 2005;26:25–30.

    Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Ruparelia JP, Chatterjee AK, Duttagupta SP, Mukherji S. Strain specificity in antimicrobial activity of silver and copper nanoparticles. Acta Biomater. 2008;4:707–16.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Klueh U, Wagner V, Kelly S, Johnson A, Bryers JD. Efficacy of silver-coated fabric to prevent bacterial colonization and subsequent device-based biofilm formation. J Biomed Mater Res. 2000;53:621–31.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Varma RS, Kothari DC, Tewari R. Nano-composite soda lime silicate glass prepared using silver ion exchange. J Non-Cryst Solids. 2009;355:1246–51.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Akkopru B, Durucan C. Preparation and microstructure of sol–gel derived silver-doped silica. J Sol-Gel Sci Technol. 2007;43:227–36.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Bellantone M, Coleman NJ, Hench LL. Bacteriostatic action of a novel four-component bioactive glass. J Biomed Mater Res. 2000;51:484–90.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Ahmed I, Abou Neel EA, Valappil SP, Nazhat SN, Pickup DM, Carta D, Carroll DL, Newport RJ, Smith ME, Knowles JC. The structure and properties of silver-doped phosphate-based glasses. J Mater Sci. 2007;42:9827–35.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Oven R, Yin M, Davies PA. Characterisation of planar optical waveguides formed by copper–sodium, electric field assisted, ion exchange in glass. J Phys D Appl Phys. 2004;37:2207–15.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Chen QZ, Efthymiou A, Salih V, Boccaccini AR. Bioglass®-derived glass-ceramic scaffolds: study of cell proliferation and scaffold degradation in vitro. J Biomed Mater Res Part A. 2008;84A:1049–60.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Suryanarayana C, Grant Norton M. X-ray diffraction: a practical approach. New York: Plenum Press; 1998. p. 21–96.

    Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Kokubo T. A/W glass-ceramic: processing and properties. In: Hench LL, Wilson J, editors. An introduction to bioceramics. Singapore: World Scientific; 1993. p. 125–37.

    Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Hench LL. Bioceramics. J Am Ceram Soc 1998; 1705–1728.

  25. 25.

    Somerman MJ, Archer SY, Imm GR, Foster RA. A comparative study of human periodontal ligament cells and gingival fibroblasts in vitro. J Dent Res. 1988;67:66–70.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Clupper DC, Hench LL. Bioactive response of Ag-doped tape cast Bioglass® 45S5 following heat treatment. J Mater Sci Mater Med. 2001;12:917–21.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Gough JE, Notingher I, Hench LL. Osteoblast attachment and mineralized nodule formation on rough and smooth 45S5 bioactive glass monoliths. J Biomed Mater Res Part A. 2004;68A:640–50.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Kim CS, Park EK, Kim SG. Silica–silver nano structure spheres prepared by spray pyrolysis of sol containing silver precursor. J Sol–gel Sci Technol. 2008;47:7–15.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Pereira MM, Hench LL. Mechanisms of hydroxyapatite formation on porous gel-silica substrates. J Sol–Gel Sci Technol. 1996;7:59–68.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Yano T, Azegami K, Shibata S, Yamane M. Chemical state of oxygen in Ag+/Na+ ion-exchanged sodium silicate glass. J Non-Cryst Solids. 1997;222:94–101.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    Xing ZC, Chae WP, Baek JY, et al. In vitro assessment of antibacterial activity and cytocompatibility of silver-containing PHBV nanofibrous scaffolds for tissue engineering. Biomacromolecules. 2010;11:1248–53.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references


The authors acknowledge financial support from EPSRC (UK).

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to A. R. Boccaccini.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Newby, P.J., El-Gendy, R., Kirkham, J. et al. Ag-doped 45S5 Bioglass®-based bone scaffolds by molten salt ion exchange: processing and characterisation. J Mater Sci: Mater Med 22, 557–569 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10856-011-4240-8

Download citation


  • Simulated Body Fluid
  • Bioactive Glass
  • Bone Tissue Engineering
  • Salt Bath
  • Ag3PO4