Evaluation of surface characteristics of dental composites using profilometry, scanning electron, atomic force microscopy and gloss-meter

  • A. Kakaboura
  • M. Fragouli
  • C. RahiotisEmail author
  • N. Silikas


The aim of this in vitro investigation was to compare various roughness and topography measurement methods to characterize the surface quality in several types of resin composites. The initial surface quality of several resin composites was compared. The materials evaluated were of three categories: i) hybrid: TPH Spectrum; ii) reinforced microfill: Micronew and iii) microhybrid: Synergy Duo, Esthet-X, Point.4 and Palfique Estelite. Three Groups of identical disk-shaped specimens (10 × 1.5 mm) were prepared from each material (n = 6) and polished with Soflex discs. Macro-roughness (Ra) was measured with Group 1 by 2-D profilometry. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) gave 3-D images and micro-roughness (Ra) of Group 2. Surface optical gloss at 60 was determined for Group 3. Specimens of each material were also studied by scanning electron microscopy. Macro-Ra values (μm) ranged from 0.30 to 0.56. Micro-Ra values ranged from 0.03 to 0.14 and they differed from macro-Ra values in ranking order. Percentage Gloss values ranged from 30.6 to 70.1%. The results revealed that micro-roughness showed a high correlation with gloss values (r = 0.93), whilst macro-roughness did not (r = 0.62). Moreover, the AFM method showed higher capability to distinguish surface roughness compared with the 2-D profilometry and to reveal more detailed definition of surface texture than the examination under SEM.


Atomic Force Microscopy Surface Quality Atomic Force Microscopy Image Surface Texture Resin Composite 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Kakaboura
    • 1
  • M. Fragouli
    • 1
  • C. Rahiotis
    • 1
    Email author
  • N. Silikas
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Operative Dentistry, Faculty of DentistryUniversity of AthensGreece
  2. 2.Biomaterials Research Group, School of DentistryThe University of ManchesterUK

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