Cell/surface interactions on laser micro-textured titanium-coated silicon surfaces

  • Steven Mwenifumbo
  • Mingwei Li
  • Jianbo Chen
  • Aboubaker Beye
  • Wolé SoboyejoEmail author


This paper examines the effects of nano-scale titanium coatings, and micro-groove/micro-grid patterns on cell/surface interactions on silicon surfaces. The nature of the cellular attachment and adhesion to the coated/uncoated micro-textured surfaces was elucidated by the visualization of the cells and relevant cytoskeletal & focal adhesion proteins through scanning electron microscopy and immunofluorescence staining. Increased cell spreading and proliferation rates are observed on surfaces with 50 nm thick Ti coatings. The micro-groove geometries have been shown to promote contact guidance, which leads to reduced scar tissue formation. In contrast, smooth surfaces result in random cell orientations and the increased possibility of scar tissue formation. Immunofluorescence cell staining experiments also reveal that the actin stress fibers are aligned along the groove dimensions, with discrete focal adhesions occurring along the ridges, within the grooves and at the ends of the cell extensions. The implications of the observed cell/surface interactions are discussed for possible applications of silicon in implantable biomedical systems.


Groove Depth Titanium Coating Contact Guidance Biocompatible Coating Silicon Specimen 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    J. W. GARDNER, V. K. VARADAN and O. O. AWADELKARIM, “Microsensors, MEMS, and Smart Devices” (Wiley, New York, 2002).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    B. ZIAIE and K. NAJAFI, Biomed. Micr. 3(4) (2001) 285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    D. LIEPMANN, in Proceedings of The 3rd Korean MEMS Conference (Seoul, 2001) p. 13.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    BABAK ZIAIE X. CAO, S. LAI and L. LEE, Biomed. Micr. 3(2) (2001) 109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Z. STRONG, A. WANG and C. MCCONAGHY, Biomed. Microdevices 4(2) (2002) 97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    G. VOSKERICIAN, M. S. SHIVE, R. S. SHAWGO, H. VON RECUM, J. M. ANDERSON, M. J. CIMA and R. LANGER, Biomater. 24 (2003) 1959.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    B. D. RATNER, A. S. HOFFMAN, F. J. SCHOEN and J. E. LEMONS, “Biomaterials Science: An Introduction to Materials in Medicine” (Academic Press, San Diego, 1996).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Y. HANEIN, Y. V. PAN, B. D. RATNER, D. DENTON and K. F. BÖHRINGER, Sens. Act. B: Chem. 81(1) (2001) 49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    C. MILBURN, S. MWENIFUMBO, E. KUNG and W. O. SOBOYEJO, Effects of biocompatible nano-scale titanium coatings on cell spreading and adhesion to biomems structures, to be submitted.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    D. M. BRUNETTE, “Titanium in Medicine: Material Science, Surface Science, Engineering, Biological Responses and Medical Applications” (Springer-Verlag, New York, 2001).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    W. O. SOBOYEJO, B. NEMETSKI, S. ALLAMEH, N. MARCANTONIO, C. MERCER and J. RICCI, J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 62 (2002) 56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    W. O. SOBOYEJO, C. MERCER, S. ALLAMEH, B. NEMETSKI, N. MARCANTONIO and J. L. RICCI, Key Eng. Mater. 198–199 (2001) 203.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    K. ANSELME, P. LINEZ, M. BIGERELLE, D. LE MAGUER, A. LE MAGUER, P. HARDOUIN, H. F. HILDEBRAND, A. IOST and J. M. LEROY, Biomater. 21 (2000) 1567.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    K. ANSELME, M. BIGERELLE, B. NOEL, E. DUFRESNE, D. JUDAS, A. IOST and P. HARDOUIN Biomed. Mater. Res. 49 (2000) 155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    K. ANSELME, B. NOEL and P. HARDOUN, J. Mater. Sci.: Mater. Med. 10 (1999) 815.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    J. L. RICCI and H. ALEXANDER, Key Eng. Mater. 198–199 (2001) 179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    J. L. RICCI, J. CHARVET, S. R. FRENKEL, R. CHANG, P. NADKARNI, J. TURNER and H. ALEXANDER, “Bone response to laser microtextured surfaces”, Bone Engineering, edited by J. E. Davies, (Em2 Inc., Toronto, 2000) p. 1.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    J. H-C WANG, E. S. GROOD, J. FLORER and R. WENSTRUP, J. Biomech. 33 (2000) 729.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    J. H.-C. WANG and E.S. GROOD, Connective Tissue Res. 41 (2000) 29.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    K. D. CHESMAL and J. BLACK, J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 29 (1995) 1089.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    K. D. CHESMAL, C. C. CLARK, C. T. BRIGHTON and J. BLACK, J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 29 (1995) 1101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    E. DEN BRABER, J. DE RUIJTER, H. SMITS, L. GINSEL, A. F. VON RECUM and J. A. JANSEN, J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 29 (1995) 511.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    J. L. RICCI, J. CHARVET and R. CHANG, in Proceedings of 20th Annual Meeting of the Society for Biomaterials (Boston, 1994) p. 401.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    P. CLARK, D. COLES and M. PECKHAM, Exp. Cell Res. 230 (1997) 275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    R. F. WOOD, C. W. WHITE and R. T. YOUNG, “Semiconductors and Semimetals 23” (Academic, Orlando, 1984).Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    M. MOSBACHER, H. J. MUNZER, M. BERTSCH, V. DOBLER, N. CHAOUI, J. SIEGEL, R. OLTRA, D. BAUERLE, J. BONEBERG and P. LEIDERER, “Laser assisted Particle Removal from Silicon Wafers”, Particles on Surfaces: Detection, Adhesion and Removal 7, (VSP International Science Publisher, Netherlands, 2002), p. 275.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    A. G. CULLIS, Reports Prog. Phys 48 (1985) 1155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    S. VERCAIGNE, J. WOLKE, I. NAERT and J. JANSEN, J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 41 (1998) 41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    M. LI, N. MORRIS, S. MWENIFUMBO, M. KEIRSTEAD and W. SOBOYEJO, in Proceedings of SPIE 4830 (Osaka, 2002) 206.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    S. MWENIFUMBO, N. D. MORRIS, M. LI and W. O. SOBOYEJO, “Surface Engineering in Materials Science II” (San Diego, 2003) p. 141.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    A. M. P. TURNER, N. DOWELL, S. W. P. TURNER, L. KAM, M. ISAACSON, J. N. TURNER, H. G. CRAIGHEAD and W. SHAIN, J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 51 (2000) 430.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    N. D. SPENCER and M. TEXTOR, Surface Modification, Surface Analysis and Biomaterials. Materials in Medicine, edited by MD, Speidel and P Uggowitzer, (ETHZ, 1998).Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    B. FENG, J. Y. CHEN, S. K. QI, L. HE, J. Z. ZHAO and X. D. ZHANG, J. Mater. Sci.: Mater. Med. 13 (2002) 457.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    B. FENG, J. WENG, B. C. YANG, J. Y. CHEN, J. Z. ZHAO, L. HE, S. K. QI and X. D. ZHANG Mater. Character., 49 (2003) 129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    M. E. CHICUREL, C. S. CHEN and D. E. INGBER, Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 10 (1998) 232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    E. RUOSLAHTI and B. OBRINK, Exp. Cell Res. 227 (1996) 1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    K. ANSELME, Biomater. 21 (2000) 667.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    P. CLARK, P. CONNOLLY, A. CURTIS, J. DOW and C. WILKINSON, Development 99 (1987) 439.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    A. CURTIS and C. WILKINSON, Biomater. 18 (1997) 1573–1583.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    X. F. WALBOOMERS, W. MONAGHAN, A. CURTIS and J. A. JANSEN, J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 46 (1999) 212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    P. CLARK, P. CONNOLLY, A. CURTIS, J. DOW and C. WILKINSON, Development 108 (1990) 635.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    A. CURTIS and P. CLARK, CRC Rev. Biocomp. 5 (1990) 343.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    J. MEYLE, K. GUTLIG and W. NISCH, J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 29 (1995) 81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    A. GREEN, J. JANSEN, J. VAN DER WAERDEN and A. VON RECUM, J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 28 (1994) 647.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    H. G. CRAIGHEAD, S. W. TURNER, R. C. DAVIS, C. JAMES, A. M. PEREZ, P. M. ST. JOHN and M.S. ISAACSON. J. Biomed. Dev. 1(1) (1998) 49.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    J. A. T. DOW, P. CLARK, P. CONNOLLY, A. S. G. CURTIS and C. D. W. WILKINSON, J. Cell. Sci. Suppl. 8 (1987) 55.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    S. MWENIFUMBO, Cell/surface interactions and adhesion on biomedical and biomems surfaces: effects of laser micro-texturing and titanium coatings, A thesis of Princeton University (2004) p. 41.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    D. WANG, K. CHRISTENSEN, K. CHAWLA, G. XIAO, P. H. KREBSBACH and R. T. FRANCESCHI, J. Bone. Miner. Res. 14(6) (1999) 893.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Steven Mwenifumbo
    • 1
  • Mingwei Li
    • 2
  • Jianbo Chen
    • 1
  • Aboubaker Beye
    • 1
    • 3
  • Wolé Soboyejo
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.The Princeton Materials Institute and The Department of Mechanical and Aerospace EngineeringPrinceton UniversityPrincetonUSA
  2. 2.Spectra-Physics, Inc.Mountain ViewUSA
  3. 3.Department of PhysicsCheikh Anta Diop UniversityDakarSenegal

Personalised recommendations