The performance of a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) used as a sensor/detector relies on the performance and quality of the film coated onto the quartz crystal sensor. This study focuses on the sensor coating preparation for the detection of glycine. Cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs), natural polymers, were coated on a quartz crystal (QC) surface by a spin-coating method. The prepared CNF-coated QC was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), cyclic voltammetry (CV), Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry-attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR), Raman spectroscopy, and water contact angle (WCA). The stable and fully covered QCs without further modification were then employed for aqueous glycine detection. Detection with a wide concentration range (3–1000 μg/mL) of glycine was studied. The resonance frequency shifts obtained from the samples during each step of the measurement are presented and discussed. The data show a linear range of detection (R2 = 0.9945) for 6–500 μg/mL of glycine and a limit of detection (LOD) of 8 μg/mL. This study indicates that the CNF-coated QCM has a potential application as a biodetector for glycine detection.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Z. Li, X. Zheng, J. Zheng, A non-enzymatic sensor based on well-stable Au@Ag nanoparticles for sensitive detection of H2O2. New J. Chem. 40, 2115–2120 (2016)
Y. Wang, L. He, K. Huang, Y. Chen, S. Wang, Z. Liu, D. Li, Recent advances in nanomaterial-based electrochemical and optical sensing platforms for microRNA assays. Analyst 144, 2849–2866 (2019)
Z. Wang, S. Wu, J. Wang, A. Yu, G. Wei, Carbon nanofiber-based functional nanomaterials for sensor applications. Nanomaterials 9(7), 1045 (2019)
T. Benselfelt, J. Engström, L. Wagberg, Supramolecular double networks of cellulose nanofibrils and algal polysaccharides with excellent wet mechanical properties. Green Chem 20, 2558–2570 (2018)
G. Teng, S. Lin, D. Xu, Y. Heng, D. Hu, Renewable cellulose separator with good thermal stability prepared via phase inversion for high-performance supercapacitors. J Mater Sci: Mater Electron. 31, 7916–7926 (2020)
N. Pahimanolis, U. Hippi, L.S. Johansson, T. Saarinen, N. Houbenov, J. Ruokolainen, J. Seppala, Surface functionalization of nanofibrillated cellulose using click-chemistry approach in aqueous media. Cellulose 18, 1201–1212 (2011)
H. Orelma, I. Filpponen, L. Johansson, M. Osterberg, O. Rojas, J. Laine, Surface functionalized nanofibrillar cellulose (NFC) film as a platform for immunoassays and diagnostics. Biointerphases 7, 1–4 (2012)
Y. Zhang, R.G. Carbonell, O.J. Rojas, Bioactive cellulose nanofibrils for specific human IgG binding. Biomacromol 14, 4161–4168 (2013)
O. Rojas, H. Orelma, I. Filpponen, L. Johansson, M. Osterberg, J. Laine, Generic method for attaching biomolecules via avidin–biotin complexes immobilized on films of regenerated and nanofibrillar cellulose. Biomacromol 13, 2802–2810 (2012)
J. Zhao, C. Lu, X. He, X. Zhang, W. Zhang, X. Zhang, Polyethyleneimine-grafted cellulose nanofibril aerogels as versatile vehicles for drug delivery. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces. 7(4), 2607–2615 (2015)
J.C. Courtenay, R.I. Sharma, J.L. Scott, Recent advances in modified cellulose for tissue culture applications. Molecules 23(3), 654 (2018)
X. Niu, Y. Liu, Y. Song, J. Han, H. Pan, Rosin modified cellulose nanofiber as a reinforcing and co-antimicrobial agents in poly lactic acid /chitosan composite film for food packaging. Carbohydr. Polym. 183, 102–109 (2018)
S. Sulaiman, M.N. Mokhtar, M.N. Naim, A.S. Baharuddin, A. Sulaiman, A review: potential usage of cellulose nanofibers (CNF) for enzyme immobilization via covalent interactions. Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol. 175, 1817–1842 (2015)
G. Zhu, X. Zhu, Q. Fan, X. Wan, Raman spectra of amino acids and their aqueous solutions. Spectrochim. Acta Part A. 78, 1187–1195 (2011)
H. Singh, K.K. Bamzai, Effect of glycine on structural, optical and dielectric properties of solution grown samarium chloride coordinated with salicylic acid. J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 30, 3833–3846 (2019)
W.H. Zhang et al., Monitoring hippocampal glycine with the computationally designed optical sensor GlyFS. Nat. Chem. Biol. 14, 861–869 (2018)
Y. Lu et al., Glycine prevents pressure overload induced cardiac hypertrophy mediated by glycine receptor. Biochem. Pharmacol. 123, 40–51 (2017)
M. Davids, J.D.T. Ndika, G.S. Salomons, H.J. Blom, T. Teerlink, Promiscuous activity of arginine: glycine amidinotransferase is responsible for the synthesis of the novel cardiovascular risk factor homoarginine. FEBS Lett. 586, 3653–3657 (2012)
M. Adeva-Andany, G. Souto-Adeva, E. Ameneiros-Rodriguez, C. Fernandez-Fernandez, C. Donapetry-Garcia, A. Dominguez-Montero, Insulin resistance and glycine metabolism in humans. Amino Acids 50, 11–27 (2018)
M. Magnusson, T.J. Wang, C. Clish, G. Engström, P. Nilsson, R.E. Gerszten, O. Melander, Dimethylglycine deficiency and the development of diabetes. Diabetes 64, 3010–3016 (2015)
I. Baric, S. Erdol, H. Saglam, M. Lovric, R. Belužić, O. Vugrek, H.J. Blom, K. Fumić, Glycine N-Methyltransferase deficiency: a member of dysmethylating liver disorders. JIMD Rep. 31, 101–106 (2017)
R.C. Geck, A. Toker, Nonessential amino acid metabolism in breast cancer. Adv. Biol. Regul. 62, 11–17 (2016)
G. Chakraborty, P. Dhar, V. Katiyar, G. Pugazhenthi, Applicability of Fe-CNC/GR/PLA composite as potential sensor for biomolecules. J. Mater. Sci.: Mater. Electron. 31, 5984–5999 (2020)
M.A. Razak, P.S. Begum, B. Viswanath, S. Rajagopal, Multifarious beneficial effect of nonessential amino acid, glycine: a review. Oxid. Med. Cell Longev. 2017, 1–8 (2017)
M.J. Fischer, Amine coupling through EDC/NHS: a practical approach. Surface plasmon resonance (Humana Press, Totowa, 2010)
D.M. Kalaskar, R.V. Ulijn, J.E. Gough, M.R. Alexander, D.J. Scurr, W.W. Sampson, S.J. Eichhorn, Characterization of amino acid modified cellulose surfaces using ToF-SIMS and XPS. Cellulose 17, 747–756 (2010)
K. Hilpert, D.F. Winkler, R.E. Hancock, Cellulose-bound peptide arrays: preparation and applications. Biotechnol Genet Eng Rev. 24, 31–106 (2007)
E. Haghighi, S. Zeinali, Nanoporous MIL-101(Cr) as a sensing layer coated on a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) nanosensor to detect volatile organic compounds (VOCs). RSC Adv. 9, 24460–24470 (2019)
S. Turkdogan, Engineered II–VI quaternary alloys and their humidity sensing performance analyzed by QCM. J. Mater. Sci.: Mater. Electron. 30, 10427–10434 (2019)
C. Jiang, T. Cao, W. Wu, J. Song, Y. Jin, Novel approach to prepare ultrathin lignocellulosic film for monitoring enzymatic hydrolysis process by quartz crystal microbalance. ACS Sustain. Chem. Eng. 5, 3837–3844 (2017)
B.P. Wilson et al., Structural distinction due to deposition method in ultrathin films of cellulose nanofibers. Cellulose 25, 1715–1724 (2018)
Y. Yao, X. Huang, B. Zhang, Z. Zhang, D. Hou, Z. Zhou, Facile fabrication of high sensitivity cellulose nanocrystals based QCM humidity sensors with asymmetric electrode structure. Sens. Actuators: B 302, 127192 (2020)
D.L. Osorio-Arrieta et al., Reduction of the measurement time by the prediction of the steady-state response for quartz crystal microbalance gas sensors. Sensors 18, 2475 (2018)
J. Im, E.S. Sterner, T.M. Swager, Integrated gas sensing system of SWCNT and cellulose polymer concentrator for benzene, toluene, and xylenes. Sensors 16, 183 (2016)
C.L. Pirich, R.A. de Freitas, R.M. Torresi, G.F. Picheth, M.R. Sierakowski, Piezoelectric immunochip coated with thin films of bacterial cellulose nanocrystals for dengue detection. Biosens. Bioelectron. 92, 47–53 (2017)
T. Mohan et al., Nano- and micropatterned polycaprolactone cellulose composite surfaces with tunable protein adsorption, fibrin clot formation, and endothelial cellular response. Biomacromol 20, 2327–2337 (2019)
S. Atay, K. Piskin, F. Yılmaz, C. Çakır, H. Yavuzd, A. Denizli, Quartz crystal microbalance based biosensors for detecting highly metastatic breast cancer cells via their transferrin receptors. Anal. Methods. 8, 153–161 (2016)
A. Afzal, A. Mujahid, R. Schirhagl, S.Z. Bajwa, U. Latif, S. Feroz, Gravimetric viral diagnostics: QCM based biosensors for early detection of viruses. Chemosensors. 5(1), 7 (2017)
Sh Zhang, H. Bai, J. Luo, P. Yang, J. Cai, A recyclable chitosan-based QCM biosensor for sensitive and selective detection of breast cancer cells in real time. Analyst. 139, 6259–6265 (2014)
C. Tonda-Turo, I. Carmagnola, G. Ciardelli, Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring: a powerful method to predict the in vivo behavior of bioengineered surfaces. Front. Bioeng. Biotechnol. 6, 158 (2018)
R. Fernandez, P. Garcia, M. Garcia, J.V. Garcia, Y. Jimenez, A. Arnau, Design and validation of a 150 MHz HFFQCM sensor for bio-sensing applications. Sensors 17, 2057 (2017)
S. Damiati, M. Peacock, R. Mhanna, S. Søpstad, U.B. Sleytr, B. Schuster, Bioinspired detection sensor based on functional nanostructures of S-proteins to target the folate receptors in breast cancer cells. Sens. Actuators B. 267, 224–230 (2018)
X. Li, S. Song, Q. Shuai, Y. Pei, T. Aastrup, Y. Pei, Zh Pei, Real-time and label-free analysis of binding thermodynamics of carbohydrate-protein interactions on unfixed cancer cell surfaces using a QCM biosensor. Sci. Rep. 5, 14066 (2015)
C. Yao, Y. Xiang, K. Deng, H. Xia, W. Fu, Sensitive and specific HBV genomic DNA detection using RCA-based QCM biosensor. Sens. Actuators B. 181, 382–387 (2013)
Y. Zhang, O.J. Rojas, Immunosensors for C-reactive protein based on ultrathin films of carboxylated cellulose nanofibrils. Biomacromol 18(2), 526–534 (2017)
G.Z. Sauerbrey, The use of quartz oscillators for weighing thin layers and for microweighing. Phys. 155, 206–222 (1959)
V.M. Mecea, From quartz crystal microbalance to fundamental principles of mass measurements. Anal. Lett. 38, 753–767 (2005)
J. Vincent Edwards, K.R. Fontenot, N.T. Prevost, N. Pircher, F. Liebner, B.D. Condon, Preparation, characterization and activity of a peptide-cellulosic aerogel protease sensor from cotton. Sensors. 16(11), 1789 (2016)
H. Kargarzadeh, I. Ahmad, S. Thomas, A. Dufresne, Raman Spectroscopy of CNC-and CNF-Based Nanocomposites. Handbook of Nanocellulose and Cellulose Nanocomposites. Chapter 18 (Wiley, Hoboken, 2017)
B. Sjöberg, S. Foley, B. Cardey, M. Enescu, An experimental and theoretical study of the amino acid side chain Raman bands in proteins. Spectrochim. Acta Part A. 128, 300–311 (2014)
S. Palantöken, K. Bethke, V. Zivanovic, G. Kalinka, J. Kneipp, K. Rademann, Cellulose hydrogels physically crosslinked by glycine: synthesis, characterization, thermal and mechanical properties. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 137, 48380 (2019)
K.K. Kanazawa, J.G. Gordon, Frequency of a quartz microbalance in contact with liquid. Anal. Chem. 57, 1770–1771 (1905)
J.N. Miller, J.C. Miller, Statistics and Chemometrics for Analytical Chemistry, 5th edn. (Pearson Education, London, 2005)
We acknowledge the Iran National Science Foundation (INSF) for financial supports. The INSF supported this work with Grant Number 940011.
Conflict of interest
There are no conflicts of interest to declare.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Hosseini, M.S., Iraji zad, A., Vossoughi, M. et al. Development of a quartz crystal microbalance biodetector based on cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) for glycine. J Mater Sci: Mater Electron 31, 17451–17460 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10854-020-04301-x