Third-order optical nonlinearities of spray deposited l-glutamic acid thin films using Z-scan and f-scan


The l-glutamic acid thin films prepared using a lucrative process simplified spray pyrolysis (or) perfume atomizer technique. The absorption coefficient, refractive index, extinction coefficient, imaginary and real parts of dielectric constant, electrical and optical conductivity, optical polarization, electrical and optical susceptibility were inspected with spectrum of UV–Visible spectroscopy. The optical properties for varying molar concentration and wavelength were investigated to reveal the characteristic features of the chosen sample. In addition, the nonlinear optical constants, third-order susceptibility, nonlinear refractive index, nonlinear absorption coefficient, intensity dependent refractive coefficient and change in refractive index were also examined with Z-scan technique. The optical nonlinearities were also assayed using the Eclipse and f-scan experiments. The difference in the nonlinear optical responses relating to selected functional parameters has been considered significantly along with optical limiting behavior.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12


  1. 1.

    I.S. Yahia, V. Ganesh, M. Shkir, S. AlFaify, H.Y. Zahran, H. Algarni, A.M. AlBassam, An investigation on linear and non-linear optical constants of nano-spherical CuPc thin films for optoelectronic applications. Phys. B 496, 9–14 (2016)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    X.L. Zhang, L.F. Liu, W.M. Liu, Quantum anomalous Hall effect and tunable topological states in 3d transition metals doped silicene. Sci. Rep. 3, 2908 (2013)

    Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Y.H. Chen, H.S. Tao, D.X. Yao, W.M. Liu, Kondo metal and ferrimagnetic insulator on the triangular kagome lattice. Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 246402 (2012)

    Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    A.C. Ji, X.C. Xie, W.M. Liu, Quantum magnetic dynamics of polarized light in arrays of microcavities. Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 183602 (2007)

    Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Z.F. Jiang, R.D. Li, S.C. Zhang, W.M. Liu, Semiclassical time evolution of the holes from Luttinger Hamiltonian. Phys. Rev. B. 72, 045201 (2005)

    Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    J. Thirupathy, S.S.J. Dhas, M. Jose, S.M.B. Dhas, An investigation on photoacoustic spectroscopy and dielectric properties of sulfanilic acid nonlinear optical single crystal for different applications. J. Mater. Sci. 12, 1–6 (2020)

    Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    S.R. Kumar, P. Kumaresan, S. Nithiyanantham, K.S. Kumar, Density functional theory studies on coumarin Doped KDP crystals for possible laser applications. Adv. Sci. 11, 1–8 (2019)

    Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    K. Ramachandran, P. Vijayakumar, A. Raja, V. Mohankumar, G. Vinitha, M.S. Pandian, P. Ramasamy, Investigations on 4-methyl benzophenone (4MB) single crystal grown by Czochralski method and its characterization. J. Mater. Sci. 29, 8571–8583 (2018)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    A. Senthamizhan, K. Sambathkumar, S. Nithiyanantham, Physico-chemical, structural, optical and NLO studies on pure and La3+ doped l-arginine acetate crystals. Mater. Sci. Energy Technol. 3, 282–288 (2020)

    Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    E.K. Girija, A comparative study on the effect of l-tartaric acid and sodium bicarbonate on the growth and characterization of KDP single crystals. Optik. 164, 498–509 (2018)

    Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    A. Unal, M. Okur, Y. Atalay, Structural, spectroscopic, electronic analysis with nonlinear optical activity of L-Methionine L-Methioninium hydrogen maleate: a DFT study. Opt. Spectrosc. 128, 582–589 (2020)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    T. Pal, T. Kar, G. Bocelli, L. Rigi, Synthesis, growth, and characterization of L-arginine acetate crystal: a potential NLO material. Cryst. Growth Des. 3, 13–16 (2003)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    N. Vijayan, S. Rajasekaran, G. Bhagavannarayana, R. RameshBabu, R. Gopalakrishnan, M. Palanichamy, P. Ramasamy, Growth and characterization of nonlinear optical amino acid single crystal: L-alanine. Cryst. Growth Des. 6, 2441–2445 (2006)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    P. Kumaresan, S.M. Babu, P.M. Anbarasan, Thermal, dielectric studies on pure and amino acid (L-glutamic acid, L-histidine, L-valine) doped KDP single crystals. Opt. Mater. 30, 1361–1368 (2008)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    R.B. Ganesh, V. Kannan, R. Sathyalakshmi, P. Ramasamy, The growth of l-glutamic acid hydrochloride crystals by Sankaranarayanan-Ramasamy (SR) method. Mater. Lett. 61, 706–708 (2007)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    L.K. Joy, M. George, J. Alex, A. Aravind, D. Sajan, G. Vinitha, Twisted intramolecular charge transfer investigation of semi organic L-Glutamic acid hydrochloride single crystal for organic light-emitting and optical limiting applications. J. Mol. Struct. 1156, 733–744 (2018)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    N.H. Sheeba, S.C. Vattappalam, J. Naduvath, P.V. Sreenivasan, S. Mathew, R.R. Philip, Effect of Sn doping on properties of transparent ZnO thin films prepared by thermal evaporation technique. Chem. Phys. Lett. 635, 290–294 (2015)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    A.V. Bîrdeanu, M. Birdeanu, E. Fagadar-Cosma, Corrosion protection characteristics of ceramics, porphyrins and hybrid ceramics/porphyrins, deposited as single and sandwich layers, by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). J. Alloys Compd. 706, 220–226 (2017)

    Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    F. Ran, L. Miao, S. Tanemura, M. Tanemura, Y. Cao, S. Tanaka, N. Shibata, Effect of annealing temperature on optical properties of Er-doped ZnO films prepared by sol–gel method. Mater. Sci. Eng. B 148, 35–39 (2008)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    S.M. Rozati, S. Akesteh, Characterization of ZnO: Al thin films obtained by spray pyrolysis technique. Mater. Charact. 58, 319–322 (2007)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    M. Fujita, N. Kawamoto, M. Sasajima, Y. Horikoshi, Molecular beam epitaxy growth of ZnO using initial Zn layer and MgO buffer layer on Si (111) substrates. J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22, 1484–1486 (2004)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    G.A. Battiston, R. Gerbasi, M. Porchia, A. Marigo, Influence of substrate on structural properties of TiO2 thin films obtained via MOCVD. Thin Solid Films 239, 186–191 (1994)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Y. Sawada, C. Kobayashi, S. Seki, H. Funakubo, Highly-conducting indium tin-oxide transparent films fabricated by spray CVD using ethanol solution of indium (III) chloride and tin (II) chloride. Thin Solid Films 409, 46–50 (2002)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    T. Fukano, T. Motohiro, Low-temperature growth of highly crystallized transparent conductive fluorine-doped tin oxide films by intermittent spray pyrolysis deposition. Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 82, 567–575 (2004)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    K. Ravichandran, P. Philominathan, Comparative study on structural and optical properties of CdS films fabricated by three different low-cost techniques. Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 5736–5741 (2009)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    K. Ravichandran, P. Philominathan, Investigations on microstructural and optical properties of CdS films fabricated by a low-cost, simplified spray technique using perfume atomizer for solar cell applications. Sol. Energy 82, 1062–1066 (2008)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    K. Ravichandran, B. Sakthivel, P. Philominathan, Nanocrystalline transparent SnO2-ZnO films fabricated at lower substrate temperature using a low-cost and simplified spray technique. Cryst. Res. Technol. 45, 292–298 (2010)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    K. Ravichandran, G. Muruganantham, B. Sakthivel, P. Philominathan, Nanocrystalline doubly doped tin oxide films deposited using a simplified and low-cost spray technique for solar cell applications. J. Ovonic Res. 5, 63–69 (2009)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    P. Deepa, P. Philominathan, Influence of substrate temperature on certain physical properties and antibacterial activity of nanocrystalline Ag-doped In2O3 thin films. Pramana 87, 100 (2016)

    Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    K. Ravichandran, P. Philominathan, Fabrication of antimony doped tin oxide (ATO) films by an inexpensive, simplified spray technique using perfume atomizer. Mater. Lett. 62, 2980–2983 (2008)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    A. Jilani, M.S. Abdel-wahab, A.A. Al-ghamdi, A. Sadik Dahlan, I.S. Yahia, Nonlinear optical parameters of nanocrystalline AZO thin film measured at different substrate temperatures. Phys. B 481, 97–103 (2016)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    Z.M. Htwe, Y.D. Zhang, C.B. Yao, H. Li, H.Y. Li, P. Yuan, Investigation of third order nonlinear optical properties of undoped and indium doped zinc oxide (InZnO) thin films by nanosecond Z-scan technique. Opt. Mater. 52, 6–13 (2016)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    K.K. Nagaraja, S. Pramodini, P. Poornesh, A. Rao, H.S. Nagaraja, Influence of annealing on the linear and nonlinear optical properties of Mn doped ZnO thin films examined by z-scan technique in CW regime. Opt. Mater. 58, 373–381 (2016)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    S. Abed, K. Bouchouit, M.S. Aida, S. Taboukhat, Z. Sofiani, B. Kulyk, V. Figa, Nonlinear optical properties of zinc oxide doped bismuth thin films using Z-scan technique. Opt. Mater. 56, 40–44 (2016)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  35. 35.

    S.A. Mulenko, V.I. Rudenko, V.R. Liakhovetskyi, A.M. Brodin, N. Stefan, Large third-order optical nonlinearities in iron oxide thin films synthesized by reactive pulsed laser deposition. Opt. Mater. 60, 123–127 (2016)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  36. 36.

    M. Peddigari, G.P. Bharti, A. Khare, P. Dobbidi, Optical and dielectric studies on radio frequency sputtered Gd2O3 doped K0 5Na0 5NbO3 thin films for nonlinear photonic and microwave tunable device applications. J. Alloys Compd. 682, 634–642 (2016)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  37. 37.

    J. Castillo, V.P. Kozich, A.O. Marcano, Thermal lensing resulting from one-and two-photon absorption studied with a two-color time-resolved Z scan. Opt. Lett. 19, 171–173 (1994)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  38. 38.

    A.S.L. Gomes, E.L. Falcão Filho, C.B. de Araújo, D. Rativa, R.E. De Araujo, K. Sakaguchi, P.G. Kazansky, Third-order nonlinear optical properties of bismuth-borate glasses measured by conventional and thermally managed eclipse Z scan. J. Appl. Phys. 101, 033115 (2007)

    Google Scholar 

  39. 39.

    F.E.P. dos Santos, F.C. Fávero, A.S.L. Gomes, J. Xing, Q. Chen, M. Fokine, I.C.S. Carvalho, Evaluation of the third-order nonlinear optical properties of tellurite glasses by thermally managed eclipse Z-scan. J. Appl. Phys. 105, 024512 (2009)

    Google Scholar 

  40. 40.

    R. Kolkowski, M. Samoc, Modified Z-scan technique using focus-tunable lens. J. Opt. 16, 125202 (2014)

    Google Scholar 

  41. 41.

    K.D. Babu, K. Murali, N. Karthikeyan, S. Karuppusamy, Investigation of optical limiting and third-order optical nonlinear properties of 2-Nitroaniline by Z-scan and f-scan techniques. Laser Phys. 29, 095401 (2019)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  42. 42.

    J. Schöll, D. Bonalumi, L. Vicum, M. Mazzotti, M. Müller, In situ monitoring and modeling of the solvent-mediated polymorphic transformation of L-glutamic acid. Cryst. Growth Des. 6, 881–891 (2006)

    Google Scholar 

  43. 43.

    M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of optics (Seventh Expanded Edition, Cambridge, 1999)

    Google Scholar 

  44. 44.

    K.D. Babu, P. Philominathan, K. Murali, Linear and Non-linear optical properties of spray deposited Guanidine carbonate thin films. Optik. 186, 350–362 (2019)

    Google Scholar 

  45. 45.

    M. Girish, T. Dhandayuthapani, R. Sivakumar, C. Sanjeeviraja, MnS thin films prepared by a simple and novel nebulizer technique: report on the structural, optical, and dispersion energy parameters. J. Mater. Sci. 26, 3670–3684 (2015)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  46. 46.

    K.K. Kasem, H. Sadou, H. Worley, J. Wenger, Optical, photoelectrochemical, and electrochemical impedance studies on photoactive organic/inorganic/interface assemblies of Poly 2, 2 bithiophene/poly 3-(2-thienyl) aniline (PThA)/TiO2. J. Mater. Sci. Chem. Eng. 6, 50 (2018)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  47. 47.

    M. Divya, P. Malliga, P. Sagayaraj, A.J.A. Pragasam, Optical based electrical properties of thiourea borate NLO crystal for electro-optic Q switches. J. Electron. Mater. 48, 5632–5639 (2019)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  48. 48.

    P.M. Wankhade, A.B. Gambhire, G.G. Muley, Influence of urea doping on optical, thermal, mechanical and electrical properties of l-arginine phosphate monohydrate crystals for NLO applications. Optik 127, 3322–3328 (2016)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  49. 49.

    P.A. Praveen, R.R. Babu, K. Ramamurthi, Role of annealing on the structural and optical properties of nanostructured diaceto bis-benzimidazole Mn (II) complex thin films. Spectrochim. Acta A 173, 800–808 (2017)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  50. 50.

    G. Vinitha, A. Ramalingam, P.K. Palanisamy, Nonlinear studies of Pararosanilin dye in liquid and solid media. Spectrochim. Acta A 68, 1–5 (2007)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  51. 51.

    G. Balaji, A. Ramalingam, D. Balasubramanian, K. Mohanraj, Nonlinear optical properties and optical limiting effect of acid red 27. J. Adv. Phy. 6, 210–215 (2017)

    Google Scholar 

  52. 52.

    P.A. Praveen, R.R. Babu, K. Ramamurthi, Theoretical and experimental investigations on linear and nonlinear optical response of metal complexes doped PMMA films. Mater. Res. Express 4, 025024 (2017)

    Google Scholar 

  53. 53.

    A.N. Dhinaa, P.K. Palanisamy, K. Murali, Realization of all-optical AND–OR logic gates using the Z-scan method. Laser Phys. Lett. 10, 105402 (2013)

    Google Scholar 

  54. 54.

    A.N. Dhinaa, A.Y. Nooraldeen, K. Murali, P.K. Palanisamy, Z-scan technique as a tool for the measurement of blood glucose. Laser Phys. 18, 1212–1216 (2008)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  55. 55.

    A.S. Gomes, E.L. Falcão Filho, C.B. de Araújo, D. Rativa, R.E. de Araujo, Novel high sensitivity thermal managed eclipse Z-scan technique. Nonlinear Freq Gener Conv. 6455, 64550Z (2007)

    Google Scholar 

  56. 56.

    M.G. Kuzyk, C.W. Dirk, Z-Scan measurements of optical nonlinearities, Characterization techniques and tabulations for organic nonlinear materials, 655–692 (1998)

  57. 57.

    R.K. Rekha, A. Ramalingam, Nonlinear characteristic and optical limiting effect of oil red O azo dye in liquid and solid media. J. Mod. Opt. 56, 1096–1102 (2009)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  58. 58.

    M. Thangaraj, G. Vinitha, T.S. Girisun, P. Anandan, G. Ravi, Third order nonlinear optical properties and optical limiting behavior of alkali metal complexes of p-nitrophenol. Opt. Laser Technol. 73, 130–134 (2015)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  59. 59.

    P.A. Praveen, R.R. Babu, K. Jothivenkatachalam, K. Ramamurthi, Spectral, morphological, linear and nonlinear optical properties of nanostructured benzimidazole metal complex thin films. Spectrochim. Acta A 150, 280–289 (2015)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  60. 60.

    R.A. Ganeev, A.I. Ryasnyansky, V.I. Redkorechev, K. Fostiropoulos, G. Priebe, T. Usmanov, Variations of nonlinear optical characteristics of C60 thin films at 532 nm. Opt. Commun. 225, 131–139 (2003)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  61. 61.

    T. Zhang, W. Zhang, Y. Chen, J. Yin, Third-order optical nonlinearities of lead-free (Na1−xKx) 0.5 Bi0 5TiO3 thin films. Opt. Commun. 281, 439–443 (2008)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  62. 62.

    F. Abrinaei, M. Shirazi, Nonlinear optical investigations on Al doping ratio in ZnO thin film under pulsed Nd: YAG laser irradiation. J. Mater. Sci. 28, 17541–17550 (2017)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  63. 63.

    R. Bairy, A. Jayarama, G.K. Shivakumar, K. Radhakrishnan, U.K. Bhat, Investigation of third-order nonlinear optical properties of nanostructured Ni-doped CdS thin films under continuous wave laser illumination. J. Mater. Sci. 30, 6993–7004 (2019)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  64. 64.

    P. Viswanath, P.V. Rambhatla, P.S. Kiran, V.S. Muthukumar, Third order nonlinear optical properties of β enhanced PVDF based nanocomposite thin films. J. Mater. Sci. 30, 12447–12455 (2019)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references


One of the authors K. Dinesh Babu gratefully acknowledges the financial support through fellowship from University Grants Commission, India (F1-17.1/2016-17/RGNF-2015-17-SC-TAM-7193/(SA-III/Website)).

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to P. Philominathan.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Babu, K.D., Philominathan, P. & Murali, K. Third-order optical nonlinearities of spray deposited l-glutamic acid thin films using Z-scan and f-scan. J Mater Sci: Mater Electron 31, 17351–17364 (2020).

Download citation