Decrease in the camber degree of Au/ceramic co-fired structure for LTCC technology


To relieve the camber of Au/ceramic co-fired structure, investigation on the sintering of gold paste with different constituent material properties was performed in this study. The sintering initial temperature of gold paste was correlated with the gold particle size, the glass softening point and the glass content closely. By adjusted the gold paste sintering shrinkage behaviour the camber evolutions were obviously changed, including the camber direction and the camber degree. When glass content in gold paste was 3 wt% and the softening point was 730 °C, the Au/ceramic co-fired structure exhibited the minimum camber, of which the ht/ho value was 0.96. The results of this work have shown the relationship between the camber evolution of Au/ceramic structure and the sintering shrinkage behaviour of gold paste, which would give an avenue to solve camber in the LTCC application.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11


  1. 1.

    Y. Li, D. Goyal, 3D microelectronic packaging: from fundamentals to applications (Springer, Berlin, 2017)

    Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    H. Young Jun, D.S. Jung, H.Y. Koo, J.H. Kim, Y.N. Ko, K. Yun Chan, Characteristics of ZnO–B2O3–SiO2–CaO glass frits prepared by spray pyrolysis as inorganic binder for Cu electrode. J. Alloys Compd. 509, 8077–8081 (2011)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    J. Raynaud, V. Pateloup, M. Bernard, D. Gourdonnaud, D. Passerieux, D. Cros, T. Chartier, Hybridization of additive manufacturing processes to build ceramic/metal parts: example of LTCC. J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 40, 759–767 (2020)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    M. Jianli, F. Zhifen, L. Peng, W. Bing, L. Yang, Microwave dielectric properties of low-fired Li2TiO3–MgO ceramics for LTCC applications. Mater. Sci. Eng. B 204, 15–19 (2016)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    X. Yao, H. Jiao, L. Yuanming, L. Shihong, Y. Shuang Wu, Y. Xu, Z. Ming, Z. Limin, H. Zihan, Glass structure, phase transformation and microwave dielectric properties of CaO–B2O3–SiO2 glass-ceramics with addition of La2O3. J. Mater. Sci.: Mater. Electron. 28, 9911–9918 (2017)

    Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    R. Haishen, D. Mingzhao, W. Huijun, X. Tianyi, J. Shaohu, L. Huixing, L. Lan, Sintering behavior and microwave dielectric properties of B2O3–La2O3–MgO–TiO2 based glass–ceramic for LTCC applications. Mater. Lett. 210, 113–116 (2018)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    M. Haijun, C. Xingyu, W. Fenglin, Z. Weijun, Effects of alkaline earth oxides on the densification and microwave properties of low-temperature fired BaO–Al2O3–SiO2 glass–ceramic/Al2O3 composites. J. Mater. Sci. 54, 12371–12380 (2019)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    G.Q. Lu, R.C. Sutterlin, T.K. Gupta, Effect of mismatched sintering kinetics on camber in a low temperature cofired ceramic package. J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 76, 1907–1914 (1993)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    C. Jui-Chuan, J. Jau-Ho, Camber development during the cofiring of Bi–layer glass-based dielectric laminate. J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 88, 1165–1170 (2005)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    L. Yun-Chiang, J. Jau-Ho, Constrained Sintering of Silver Circuit Paste. J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 87, 187–191 (2004)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    A. Heux, G. Antou, N. Pradeilles, N. Delhote, C. Karnfelt, F. Gallee, A. Maître, Sintering and thermomechanical behavior of a low temperature co–fired ceramic. Ceram. Int. 44, 22609–22615 (2018)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    J.W. Choe, J.N. Calata, G.Q. Lu, Constrained-film sintering of a gold circuit paste. J. Mater. Res. 10, 986–994 (1995)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    T.J. Garino, H.K. Bowen, Kinetics of constrained-film sintering. J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 73, 251–257 (1990)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    A. Jagota, C.Y. Hui, Mechanics of sintering thin films–I. Formulation and Analytical Results. Mech. Mater. 9, 107–119 (1990)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    A. Jagota, C.Y. Hui, Mechanics of sintering thin films–II. Cracking due to self-stress. Mech. Mater. 11, 221–234 (1991)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Y. Tingnan, Z. Weijun, C. Xingyu, L. Zhuofeng, M. Haijun, W. Fenglin, Improvement of gold electrode conductivity after cofiring with CaO–B2O3–SiO2 green tapes for LTCC application. Ceram. Int. 46, 493–499 (2020)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Y. Tingnan, Z. Weijun, C. Xingyu, W. Fenglin, B. Shuxin, Sintering densification behaviors and crystallization characteristics of glass–ceramics formed by two types of CaO–B2O3–SiO2 glass. J. Mater. Sci.: Mater. Electron. 30, 1–8 (2019)

    Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Lutz K, Golla M (1975) Process for the production of gold powder, US Patent 3885955.

  19. 19.

    S. Iwama, K. Hayakawa, Sintering of ultrafine metal powders. II. Neck growth stage of Au, Ag, Al and Cu. Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 20, 335–340 (1981)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Z. Haiyang, F. Renli, S. Agathopoulos, F. Jun, L. Guojun, H. Qinjiang, Crystallization behaviour and properties of BaO–CaO–B2O3–SiO2 glasses and glass–ceramics for LTCC applications. Ceram. Int. 44, 10147–10153 (2018)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    S. Liangbo, L. Chunfeng, F. Jian, Z. Jie, L. Chengjie, Crystallization behavior and thermal properties of B2O3–containing MgO–Al2O3–SiO2–Li2O glass–ceramic and its wettability on Si3N4 ceramic. J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 39, 1532–1539 (2019)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Q. Jun, Z. Weijun, B. Shuxin, L. Zhuofeng, Study on the sintering and contact formation process of silver front side metallization pastes for crystalline silicon solar cells. Appl. Surf. Sci. 376, 52–61 (2016)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Y. Imanaka, Multilayered low temperature cofired ceramics (LTCC) technology (Springer, Boston, 2005)

    Google Scholar 

Download references


This work was funded by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11705281), The Natural Science Foundation of Hunan Province of China (Grant No. 2018JJ3602) and the Research Project of National University of Defense Technology (ZK18-03-51).

Author information



Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Xingyu Chen or Weijun Zhang.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Yan, T., Chen, X., Zhang, W. et al. Decrease in the camber degree of Au/ceramic co-fired structure for LTCC technology. J Mater Sci: Mater Electron 31, 17225–17232 (2020).

Download citation