Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics

, Volume 30, Issue 17, pp 16421–16426 | Cite as

Investigation on electrical conductivity and surface distribution of work function of C12A7 electride

  • Shanshan Yang
  • Cong Ji
  • Fan GuEmail author


In this work, a polycrystalline C12A7 electride target was prepared by one-step sintering method using a graphite crucible. X-rays diffraction confirmed the presence of the C12A7 phase. In the meanwhile, a carbon phase was founded in the target and this situation was never reported before. It can be considered that there is a little carbon left in the C12A7 crystal. The electrical and emission properties of carbon doped C12A7 electride were explored. In terms of the electrical characteristics, the electrical resistance measured by a four-pin resistance meter at 300 K is relatively large, which is similar to semiconductors, indicating a low-level electron concentration of about 1.0 × 1018 cm−3. For the emission performance, a Scanning Kelvin Probe was used to measure the surface distribution of work function. The result shows that the surface work function is relatively stable with a floating about ± 0.03 eV of the average value 3.7 eV. The work function is also smaller, although it is higher than other pure C12A7 electrides, making it has a great prospect in optoelectronics devices.



  1. 1.
    T. Kamiya, S. Aiba, M. Miyakawa et al., Chem. Mater. 17, 6311 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    H. Yanagi, K.B. Kim, I. Koizumi et al., J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 18379 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Lauren P. Rand, John D. Williams, IEEE 43, 190 (2015)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    N. Ukrainczyk, T. Matusinović, Cement. Concr. Res. 40, 128 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    K. Hayashi, N. Uedac, M. Hiranob, H. Hosonoa, J. Am. Chen. Soc. 124, 738 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Alexander M. Volodin, Vladimir I. Zaikovskii et al., Mater. Lett. 189, 210 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    C. Song, J. Sun, S. Qiu et al., Chem. Mater. 20, 3473 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    C. Jung, D.H. Yoon, Surf. Eng. 27, 389 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    N. Kumamoto, D. Nakauchi, T. Kato et al., Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 57, 0212 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    S.W. Kim, S. Matsuishi, M. Miyakawa et al., J. Mater. Sci.: Mater. Electron. 18, S5 (2007)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    W. Kerrour, A. Kabir, G. Schmerber et al., J. Mater. Sci. 27, 10106 (2016)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    S.W. Kim, M. Miyakawa, M. Hirano et al., Mater. Trans. 49, 1748 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Y. Kohama, S.W. Kim, T. Tojo et al., Phys. Rev. B 77, 092505 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    S.W. Kim, S. Matsuishi, T. Nomura et al., Nano Lett. 7, 1138 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    S. Matsuishi, S.W. Kim, T. Kamiya et al., J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 4753 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    S.W. Kim, Y. Toda, K. Hayashi et al., Chem. Mater. 18, 1938 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    S.W. Kim, K. Hayashi, M. Hirano et al., J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 89, 3294 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    J. Zhao, X. Zhang, H. Liu et al., Cryst. Res. Technol. 53, 1700201 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Y. Toda, H. Yanagi, E. Ikenaga et al., Adv. Mater. 19, 3564 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    U. Petermann, I.D. Baikie, B. Lägel, Thin Solid Films 343, 492 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    I.D. Baikie, U. Petermann, B. Lägel, K. Dirscherl, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 19(4), 1460 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    S. Halas, T. Durakiewicz, J. Phys.: Condens. Matter. 10, 10815 (1998)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    P.A. Simonov, V.A. Likholobov, in Physicochemical Aspects of Preparation of Carbon-Supported Noble Metal Catalysts, ed. by A. Wieckowski, E.R. Savinova, C.G. Vayenas (CRC Press, Novosibirsk, 2003), pp. 409–454Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Y. Toda, S. Matsuishi, K. Hayashi et al., Adv. Mater. 16, 685 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    S.W. Kimay, H. Hosono, Philos. Mag. 92, 2596 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    T. Yoshizumi, K. Hayashi, Appl. Phys. Express 6, 015802 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    W. Zou, K. Khan, X. Zhao et al., Mater. Res. Express. 4, 036408 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Energy and EnvironmentSoutheast UniversityNanjingChina

Personalised recommendations