Skip to main content

Low cost synthesis of silicon nanowires for photonic applications

Abstract

Achieving light management in nanostructured materials is a recent challenge of great resonance among the scientific community, which is generally attained by expensive surface patterning requiring advanced technologies. In this paper, we report the realization of 2D random fractal arrays of silicon nanowires (NWs) synthesized with a low cost approach compatible with Si technology, without the use of any lithography or mask. Their innovative photonic properties are exploited in comparison to non-fractal nanowires. In particular, a remarkable room temperature luminescence is attained in Si NWs due to quantum confinement effect. The NWs fabrication was engineered in order to produce two-dimensional random fractal arrays of Si NWs whose structural properties were investigated and compared to other non-fractal Si NW systems. The impressive light trapping and strongly enhanced Raman signal of our fractal Si NW array is of significant interest for potential applications spanning from photonics, to photovoltaics and sensing.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4

References

  1. 1.

    S.E. Thompson, S. Parthasarathy, Mater. Today 9, 20 (2006)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    A. Sandhu, Nat. Nanotechnol. (2008). https://doi.org/10.1038/nnano.2008.12.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    A.A. Leonardi, M.J. Lo Faro, S. Petralia, B. Fazio, P. Musumeci, S. Conoci, A. Irrera, F. Priolo, ACS Sens. 3, 1690 (2018)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    S.-K. Kang, R.K.J. Murphy, S.-W. Hwang, S.M. Lee, D.V. Harburg, N.A. Krueger, J. Shin, P. Gamble, H. Cheng, S. Yu, Z. Liu, J.G. McCall, M. Stephen, H. Ying, J. Kim, G. Park, R.C. Webb, C.H. Lee, S. Chung, D.S. Wie, A.D. Gujar, B. Vemulapalli, A.H. Kim, K.-M. Lee, J. Cheng, Y. Huang, S.H. Lee, P.V. Braun, W. Z. Ray, J. A. Rogers, Nature 530, 71 (2016)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    G. Ducournau, Nat. Photon. 12, 574 (2018)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    F. Priolo, T. Gregorkiewicz, M. Galli, T.F. Krauss, Nat. Nanotechnol. 9, 19 (2014)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    A. Irrera, G. Franzò, F. Iacona, A. Canino, G. Di Stefano, D. Sanfilippo, A. Piana, P.G. Fallica, F. Priolo, Physica E 38, 181 (2007)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    S. Chan, P.M. Fauchet, Y. Li, L.J. Rothberg, B.L. Miller, Phys. Status Solidi A 182, 541 (2000)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    A. Irrera, M.J. Lo Faro, C. D’Andrea, A. Alessio Leonardi, P. Artoni, B. Fazio, R. Anna Picca, N. Cioffi, S. Trusso, G. Franzo, P. Musumeci, F. Priolo, F. Iacona, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32, 043004 (2017)

    Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    R.J. Walters, G.I. Bourianoff, H.A. Atwater, Nat. Mater. 4, 143 (2005)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    O. Bisi, S. Ossicini, L. Pavesi, Surf. Sci. Rep. 38, 1 (2000)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    M. Abdelhameed, D.R. Martir, S. Chen, W.Z. Xu, O.O. Oyeneye, S. Chakrabarti, E. Zysman-Colman, P.A. Charpentier, Sci. Rep. 8, 3050 (2018)

    Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    J. Wu, J. Dai, Y. Shao, Y. Sun, RSC Adv. 5, 83581 (2015)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    A.G. Cullis, L.T. Canham, P.D.J. Calcott, J. Appl. Phys. 82, 909 (1998)

    Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    A. Irrera, A.A. Leonardi, C. Di Franco, M.J. Lo Faro, G. Palazzo, C. D’Andrea, K. Manoli, G. Franzò, P. Musumeci, B. Fazio, L. Torsi, F. Priolo, ACS Photon. 5, 471 (2018)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    B. Tian, X. Zheng, T.J. Kempa, Y. Fang, N. Yu, G. Yu, J. Huang, C.M. Lieber, Nature 449, 885 (2007)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    A.I. Hochbaum, R. Chen, R.D. Delgado, W. Liang, E.C. Garnett, M. Najarian, A. Majumdar, P. Yang, Nature 451, 163 (2008)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    C.K. Chan, H. Peng, G. Liu, K. McIlwrath, Z.X.F.R.A. Huggins, Y. Cui, in Mater. Sustain. Energy (2010), pp. 187–191

  19. 19.

    Y. Wu, Y. Cui, L. Huynh, C.J. Barrelet, D.C. Bell, C.M. Lieber, Nano Lett. 4, 433 (2004)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    J.B. Hannon, S. Kodambaka, F.M. Ross, R.M. Tromp, Nature 440, 69 (2006)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    V. Schmidt, J.V. Wittemann, S. Senz, U. Gösele, Adv. Mater. 21, 2681 (2009)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    C. D’Andrea, M.J. Lo Faro, G. Bertino, P.M. Ossi, F. Neri, S. Trusso, P. Musumeci, M. Galli, N. Cioffi, A. Irrera, F. Priolo, B. Fazio, Nanotechnology 27, 375603 (2016)

    Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    M.-L. Zhang, K.-Q. Peng, X. Fan, J.-S. Jie, R.-Q. Zhang, S.-T. Lee, N.-B. Wong, J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 4444 (2008)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    M.J. Lo Faro, A.A. Leonardi, D. Morganti, B. Fazio, C. Vasi, P. Musumeci, F. Priolo, A. Irrera, Nanomaterials 8, 569 (2018)

    Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    S. Rotter, S. Gigan, Rev. Mod. Phys. 89, 015005 (2017)

    Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    M.J. Mendes, A. Araújo, A. Vicente, H. Águas, I. Ferreira, E. Fortunato, R. Martins, Nano Energy 26, 286 (2016)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    B. Fazio, A. Irrera, S. Pirotta, C. D’Andrea, S. Del Sorbo, M.J. Lo Faro, P.G. Gucciardi, M.A. Iatì, R. Saija, M. Patrini, P. Musumeci, C. Salvatore Vasi, D.S. Wiersma, M. Galli, F. Priolo, Nat. Photon. 11, (2017)

  28. 28.

    E. Garnett, P. Yang, Nano Lett. 10, 1082 (2010)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    J. Yang, F. Luo, T.S. Kao, X. Li, G.W. Ho, J. Teng, X. Luo, M. Hong, Light Sci. Appl. 3, e185 (2014)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    A. Lesne, M. Laguës, Scale Invariance: From Phase Transitions to Turbulence (Springer, Berlin, 2012)

    Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    B.B. Mandelbrot, D.E. Passoja, A.J. Paullay, Nature 308, 721 (1984)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    R.F. Voss, R.B. Laibowitz, E.I. Alessandrini, The Mathematics and Physics of Disordered Media: Percolation, Random Walk, Modeling, and Simulation (Springer, Heidelberg, 1983), pp. 153–168

    Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    E.F. Pecora, A. Irrera, S. Boninelli, L. Romano, C. Spinella, F. Priolo, Appl. Phys. A 102, 13 (2011)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    C. D’Andrea, M.J. Lo Faro, P. Musumeci, B. Fazio, F. Iacona, G. Franzò, P. Gucciardi, C. Vasi, F. Priolo, A. Irrera, Phys. Status Solidi C 11, 1622–1625 (2014)

    Google Scholar 

  35. 35.

    Z. Huang, N. Geyer, P. Werner, J. de Boor, U. Gösele, Adv. Mater. 23, 285 (2011)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  36. 36.

    M.J. Lo Faro, C. D’Andrea, E. Messina, B. Fazio, P. Musumeci, G. Franzò, P.G. Gucciardi, C. Vasi, F. Priolo, F. Iacona, A. Irrera, Thin Solid Films 613, 59–63 (2016)

    Google Scholar 

  37. 37.

    M.J. Lo Faro, C. D’Andrea, E. Messina, B. Fazio, P. Musumeci, R. Reitano, G. Franzò, P.G. Gucciardi, C. Vasi, F. Priolo, F. Iacona, A. Irrera, Sci. Rep. 5, 16753 (2015)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  38. 38.

    B. Fazio, P. Artoni, M.A. Iatì, C. D’Andrea, M.J. Lo Faro, S. Del Sorbo, S. Pirotta, P.G. Gucciardi, P. Musumeci, C.S. Vasi, R. Saija, M. Galli, F. Priolo, A. Irrera, Light Sci. Appl. 5, e16062 (2016)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  39. 39.

    R.F. Voss, R.B. Laibowitz, E.I. Allessandrini, Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 1441 (1982)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  40. 40.

    T.G. Andersson, Gold Bull. 15, 7 (1982)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  41. 41.

    S. Smirnov, Comptes Rendus l’Académie Des Sci. Ser. I Math. 333, 239 (2001)

    Google Scholar 

  42. 42.

    G.B. Smith, A.I. Maaroof, M.B. Cortie, Phys. Rev. B 78, 165418 (2008)

    Google Scholar 

  43. 43.

    M. Casiello, R.A. Picca, C. Fusco, L. D’Accolti, A.A. Leonardi, M.J. Lo Faro, A. Irrera, S. Trusso, P. Cotugno, M.C. Sportelli, N. Cioffi, A. Nacci, Nanomaterials 8, 78 (2018)

    Google Scholar 

  44. 44.

    M. Xu, R.R. Alfano, Opt. Lett. 30, 3051 (2005)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  45. 45.

    M.G. Donato, O. Brzobohatý, S.H. Simpson, A. Irrera, A.A. Leonardi, M.J. Lo Faro, V. Svak, O.M. Maragò, P. Zemánek, Nano Lett. (2018). https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.8b03978

    Article  Google Scholar 

  46. 46.

    B. Hua, Q. Lin, Q. Zhang, Z. Fan, Nanoscale 5, 6627 (2013)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

D. Arigò, R. Caruso, G. Gismondo, G. Lupò, C. Percolla and G. Spinella are acknowledged for expert technical assistance. We acknowledge the Project PON ARS01_00459 ADAS +.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Alessia Irrera.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Lo Faro, M.J., Leonardi, A.A., D’Andrea, C. et al. Low cost synthesis of silicon nanowires for photonic applications. J Mater Sci: Mater Electron 31, 34–40 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10854-019-00672-y

Download citation